This book is directly aimed to eliminate exhausting amounts of frustration in getting to
know and working with software objects in the most effective ways. It is concise and
broad—and definitely not simplistic—specifically to strengthen each reader’s objectoriented
mentality and to mentally solidify individual pieces of information. This is
because conciseness is more compatible with memory, and broadness is more compatible
The Proportional, Integral and Derivative –PID– controller is the most widely used
controller in industrial applications. Since its first appearance in the late nineteen century,
it had attracted researchers from all over the world because of its simplicity and
the ability to provide an excellent control performance. The PID controller now represents
more than ninety percent of the controllers used in the market.
This book is a result of contributions and inspirations from many researchers worldwide
in the field of control engineering.
Statecharts is a specification language which is derived from finite– state machines and it is a powerful visual formalism for specifying discrete event systems. Statechart diagrams capture the behaviour of entities by specifying the responses to possible event instances. Statecharts language has also a lot of features for diagram structure. Until now, some tools and software are developed to construct Statechart diagrams, however, they are neither complicated nor difficult.