Deriving meaning

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  • This paper presents an incremental probabilistic learner that models the acquistion of syntax and semantics from a corpus of child-directed utterances paired with possible representations of their meanings. These meaning representations approximate the contextual input available to the child; they do not specify the meanings of individual words or syntactic derivations. The learner then has to infer the meanings and syntactic properties of the words in the input along with a parsing model.

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  • It is a tacit assumption of m u c h linguistic inquiry that all distinct derivations of a string should assign distinct meanings. But despite the tidiness of such derivational uniqueness, there seems to be no a priori reason to assume that a g r a m m a r must have this property. If a grammar exhibits derivational equivalence, whereby distinct derivations of a string assign the same meanings, naive exhaustive search for all derivations will be redundant, and quite possibly intractable. In this paper we show how notions of derivation-reduction and normal form can be used to...

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  • Classification of utterances concerning speaker's meaning. DPs present background information of language use in order to derive an appropriate expression from speaker's meaning. In Japanese, IFTs can be derived a u t o m a t i c a l l y t h r o u g h syntactical constraints. To generate appropriate expressions, language-specific communication strategies related to DP values should be given a priori. The whole process is performed in a unification-based framework.

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  • The existence of words is usually taken for granted by the speakers of a language. To speak and understand a language means - among many other things - knowing the words of that language. The average speaker knows thousands of words, and new words enter our minds and our language on a daily basis.

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  • This contribution book is a collection of reviews and original articles from eminent experts working in the multi- and interdisciplinary arena of biomaterials, ranging from their design to novel uses. From their personal experience, the readers can obtain a stimulating foresight on the potentialities of different synthetic and engineered biomaterials. 21 chapters have been organized to illustrate different aspects of biomaterials science.

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  • Synthetic polymers are essential for modern human life, since they are used in industrial and agricultural fields. However, most synthetic polymers that have been developed by using petroleum and coal as raw materials are not compatible with the environment, since they cannot be included in the natural recycling system. There are serious contradictions between the convenience that people require today and compatibility with the natural environment. It is easy to say that we should use only natural materials in order to solve the problems coming from man-made materials.

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  • In recent years, the credit derivatives market has become extremely active. Especially credit default swaps (CDSs) and collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) have contributed to what has been an amazing development. The most important benefit of credit derivatives is their ability to transfer the credit risk of an arbitrary number of obligors in a simple, efficient, and standardized way, giv-ing rise to a liquid market for credit risk that can be easily accessed by many market participants.

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  • The concept of knowledge-crafting proposed here draws from the work of Walter Ong. About 30 years ago, Ong (1978) argued that a skilled author creates a fictional audience for the text to understand its meaning from the prospective readers’ point of view. In contrast to oral communication, the audience for written communication is not actual, but fictional, a product of the writer’s imagination that can play an active role in composition.

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  • In recent years, the credit derivatives market has become extremely active. Especially credit default swaps (CDSs) and collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) have contributed to what has been an amazing development. The most important benefit of credit derivatives is their ability to transfer the credit risk of an arbitrary number of obligors in a simple, efficient, and standardized way, giving rise to a liquid market for credit risk that can be easily accessed by many market participants.

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  • Obviously, (1.2) implies the same estimate for M(Z(QN, P)). It was suggested in [2] that in this case the (1+logN) term could be omitted at the cost of multiplying by a constant. The above suggestion means that in the passage from the sum of moduli to the modulus of the sum in (1.1) essential cancellation should take place. As a contribution towards this end the authors showed that any straight line L intersects Z(QN, P) in a set FP of linear measure less than 2eP−1N. Further information about the complement of FP under certain conditions on {zk} is obtained in [1].

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  • Despite the theoretical advantages of identifying individuals with cognitive impairment, there is no evidence to indicate whether this leads to a net benefit or risk to the individual. Although pharmaceutica agents are able to produce measurable changes in cognitive performance in people with Alzheimer’s disease, none has been shown to result consistently in clinically significant improvement. The high cost of investigation to exclude reversible causes of dementia, and the negative effects of labelling are examples of potential harm.

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  • Credit derivatives fit neatly into this three-dimen sional scheme . Until recently, credit rema ined one of the ma jor components of business risk for wh ich no tailored risk-managemen t products existed. Credit risk managemen t for the loan portfolio manager mean t a strategy of por tfolio diversification backed by line limits, with an occas ional sale of positions in the secondary ma rket . De riva tives users relied on purchasing insurance, let ters of credit, or guarantees, or negotiating colla teralized ma rk- to-ma rket credit enhancemen t provisions in Master...

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  • The traditional approach of corporate governance in the financial sector often involved the regulator or bank supervisor relying on statutory authority to devise governance standards promoting the interests of shareholders, depositors and other stakeholders. In the United Kingdom, banking regulation has traditionally involved government regulators adopting standards and rules that were applied externally to regulated financial institutions.

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  • One of the keys to using the logframe successfully is understanding what the definitions mean in operational terms, and in particular the relationship between Results and Project Purpose. Although managers are accountable for delivering the Results, they cannot control the behaviour of the target group. Achievement of the Project Purpose requires a ‘beneficiary response’ whereby the target group uses project services and in doing so derives a benefit for themselves. However, this does not mean that project managers are not responsible for achieving the Project Purpose.

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  • Pharmacogenomics is the study of how the genetic inheritance of an individual affects his/her body's response to drugs. It is a portmanteau derived from the words "pharmacology" and "genomics". It is hence the study of the relationship between pharmaceuticals and genetics. The vision of pharmacogenomics is to be able to design and produce drugs that are adapted to each person's genetic makeup.[18]

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  • The growing awareness of organisations of the need to have information systems for management purposes is related to their own need to coexist in a permanently changing environment, not only physically but also technologically, socially and financially (Caplan, 1971). This situation became more accentuated over the 1980s and 1990s, owing to the processes of market internationalisation and globalisation (Roberts and Hunt, 1991).

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article Integral Means Inequalities for Fractional Derivatives of a Unified Subclass of Prestarlike Functions with Negative Coefficients

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  • What is a text? To a layman, a text may be just a text or it may be “I’ve got no idea”. To the people in the linguistics circle who are not concerned with language as social semiotic, a text may be a rather fuzzy and abstract term, or it may mean “a body of printed or written work” as defined by the Collins English Dictionary (1990). To the etymologist, a text may carry a general meaning of texture, because, as they may explain, “text” is derived from the Latin word “textus” meaning “texture”. But what is linguistic...

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  • Analytical expression for the Displacement-displacement Correlation Function (DCF) C R has been derived based on the derived Mean Square Relative Displacement (MSRD) σ and the Mean Square Displacement (MSD) u for fcc 2 2 crystals. The effective interaction potential of the system has been considered by taking into account the influences of nearest atomic neighbors, and it contains the Morse potential characterizing the interaction of each pair of atoms.

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  • The biological ion channel gramicidin A (gA) was modified by synthetic means to obtain the tail-to-tail linked asymmetric gA-derived dimer com-pound3. Single-channel current measurements for 3in planar lipid bilayers exhibit an Eisenman I ion selectivity for alkali cations. The structural asymmetry does not lead to an observable functional asymmetry. The structure of 3in solution without and with Cs cations was investigated by 1 H-NMR spectroscopy. In CDCl3 ⁄CD3OH (1 : 1, v⁄v),3forms a mixture of double-strandedb-helices....

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