Desertification

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về hóa học được đăng trên tạp chí hóa hoc quốc tế đề tài : Desertification and livestock grazing: The roles of sedentarization, mobility and rest

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  • Soil erosion affects a large part of the Earth surface, and it represents one of the most relevant environmental problems worldwide. Intense land degradation processes that destroyed civilizations in the past are still going on at present. Accelerated soil erosion is one of the main soil threats, as the natural balance between soil formation and loss may be seriously compromised, leading to desertification and permanent loss of fertility and protective function. Soil erosion is not only related to agricultural activities and farming practices, but also to land management in general....

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  • These research teams study for example the impact and mechanisms of greenhouse gas emissions and atmospheric pollutant on climate, ozone depletion and carbon sinks (oceans and inland waters, forests and soil). They do research to understand the mechanisms and assess the impact of global change on the water cycle, water quality and availability, as well as soil functions and quality to provide the bases for management tools for sustainable water systems. Biodiversity and ecosystems are analysed to understand and minimise the negative impacts of human activities.

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  • Thus, it remedies soil degradation, desertification, and deforestation. Jatropha is native of tropical America, but now flourish in many parts of the tropics and sub-tropics in Africa/Asia. Various parts of the plant are of medicinal(both human and veterinary purposes) value for instance, and are under intensive scientific investigation. The oil is a strong purgative, widely employed as an antiseptic for cough, skin diseases, and a pain reliever from rheumatism. Jatropha latex can heal wounds and also has antimicrobial properties (Openshaw, 2000).

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  • This publication has been designed to share IFAD’s experience with a broader public. It uses examples of instruments, processes and practices selected from IFAD’s project portfolio. The theme of IFAD’s 2001 portfolio review was the environment and natural resource management. Environment and Natural Resource Management: IFAD’s Growing Commitment draws extensively on that progress report, which was presented at the Seventy-Second Session of the IFAD Executive Board in April 2001.

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  • The last few years have witnessed tremendous changes in the syllabi of environmentally related courses at Advanced Level and in tertiary education. Moreover, there have been major alterations in the way degree and diploma courses are organised in colleges and universities. Syllabus changes reflect the increasing interest in environmental issues, their significance in a political context and their increasing relevance in everyday life.

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  • Today there is not a single aspect of the world that can escape the scrutiny of environmental analysis, and business activities stand at the crux of many issues. Some of the issues that today’s executives need to understand to be environmentally literate include: air, water, and land pollution; the production and disposal of hazardous wastes; solid waste disposal; chemical and nuclear spills and accidents; global warming and the greenhouse effect; ozone depletion; deforestation and desertification; biodiversity, and overpopulation.

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  • In 1992, the first United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, popularly known as the Rio Earth Summit, was convened in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to address the state of the environment and sustainable development. The Earth Summit yielded several important agreements including “Agenda 21”, a plan of action adopted by over 178 governments to address human impacts on the environment at local, national and global levels, and key treaties on climate change, desertification and biodiversity.

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  • Grasslands occur on every continent except Antarctica, and constitute about 34 percent of the global terrestrial carbon stock. Changes in grassland vegetation due to overgrazing, conversion to crop land, desertification, fire, fragmentation, and introduction of non‐native species affect their carbon storage capacity, and may in some cases even lead to grasslands becoming a net source of CO2. For example, they may lose 20 to 50 percent of their soil organic carbon content through cultivation, soil erosion, and land degradation.

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  • The United States and other industrialized countries have committed to financial assistance for environmental initiatives through several multilateral agreements (e.g., the Montreal Protocol (1987), the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992), United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (1994), and the Copenhagen Accord (2009)).

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  • This report is a product of the Panel to Review the Critical Ecosystem Studies Initiative—a panel organized by the National Research Council (NRC) in response to congressional concerns that the restoration of the greater Everglades ecosystem be supported by the best possible science. The Critical Ecosystem Studies Initiative (CESI) has been the primary investment by the U.S. Department of the Interior to provide scientific information to advise restoration decision-making and to guide its own land management responsibilities for South Florida ecosystem restoration.

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  • The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment was carried out between 2001 and 2005 to assess the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being and to establish the scientific basis for actions needed to enhance the conservation and sustainable use of ecosystems and their contributions to human well-being.

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