Design of substructure

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  • Concrete has been in use as a primary building material since Roman times. As it is strong in compression but weak in tension, it was used in arches, vaults and walls where it is stressed principally in compression. In the mid-nineteenth century, it was discovered that iron and later steel bars could be embedded in the concrete, effectively giving it tensile strength. This allowed it to be used in beams and slabs, where it worked in bending. Buildings, bridges, retaining walls and many other structures were made in this reinforced concrete.

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  • The constitutive law of plastic deformation expresses the effects of material behavior and properties for stress analysis in the design of manufacturing technology and product service behavior, for materials testing, and for the maintenance of structural and machine components. The book represents the state of the art, but the editors do not rule out other concepts of constitutive laws. There are many different facets of the same problem and as many answers; the right one is the one that gives the most practical solution, the one that best serves the specific problem....

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  • Tài liệu tham khảo Công nghệ xây dựng duy tu bảo dưỡng cầu chuyên ngành xây dựng bằng tiếng Anh - Thiết kế của các yếu tố Hạ tầng cơ sở ( Design of Substructure Elements )

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  • Design Practice in Russia 66.1 66.2 66.3 Introduction Historical Evolution Masonry and Timber Bridges • Iron and Steel Bridges 66 Modern Development Standardization of Superstructures • Features of Substructure 66.4 Bridge Design Theory and Methods Design Codes and Specifications • Design Concepts and Philosophy • Concrete Structure Design • Steel Structure Design • Stability Design • Temporary Structure Design 66.5 Inspection and Test Techniques Static Load Tests • Dynamic Load Tests • Running in of Bridge under Load 66.6 Simon A.

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  • Roman theatres were complex buildings, closer in design to modern theatres than Greek ones. The seating was arranged in a semicircle around the orchestra as in the Greek theatre, but the stage and scene building were joined to the auditorium and rose to the same height, creating a sense of enclosure more like that of a modern theatre. This sense of enclosure was made more emphatic by the fact that some smaller theatres or odea were roofed and larger ones often had awnings (vela) overhead to shade the audience.

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  • Bearings 26.1 26.2 Introduction . Types of Bearings Sliding Bearings • Rocker and Pin Bearings • Roller Bearings • Elastomeric Bearings • Curved Bearings • Pot Bearings • Disk Bearings Johnny Feng J. Muller International, Inc. 26.3 Selection of Bearings Determination of Functional Requirements • Evaluation of Bearings • Preliminary Bearing Design Hong Chen J. Muller International, Inc. 26.4 Design of Elastomeric Bearings Design Procedure • Design Example 26.

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  • Substructures of Major Overwater Bridges 47.1 47.2 Introduction Large Diameter Tubular Piles Description • Offshore Structure Practice • Steel Pile Design and Fabrication • Transportation and Upending of Piles • Driving of Piles • Utilization of Piles in Bridge Piers • Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Piles • Footing Blocks 47 47.3 Cofferdams for Bridge Piers Description • Design Requirements • Internally-Braced Cofferdams • Circular Cofferdams • Excavation • Driving of Piles in Cofferdams • Tremie Concrete Seal • Pier Footing Block • Pier Shaft 47.

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  • Highway Bridge Loads and Load Distribution 6.1 6.2 6.3 Introduction Permanent Loads Vehicular Live Loads Design Vehicular Live Load • Permit Vehicles • Fatigue Loads • Load Distribution for Superstructure Design • Load Distribution for Substructure Design • Multiple Presence of Live-Load Lanes • Dynamic Load Allowance • Horizontal Loads Due to Vehicular Traffic Susan E. Hida California Department of Transportation 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 Pedestrian Loads Wind Loads Effects Due to Superimposed Deformations Exceptions to Code-Specified Design Loads 6.

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  • Timber Bridges 20.1 Introduction Timber as a Bridge Material • Past, Present, and Future of Timber Bridges 20.2 Properties of Wood and Wood Products Physical Properties of Wood • Mechanical Properties of Wood • Wood and Wood-Based Materials for Bridge Construction • Preservation and Protection 20.3 20.4 Kenneth J.

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  • Seismic Retrofit Technology Kevin I. Keady California Department of Transportation 43 43.1 43.2 43.3 Introduction Analysis Techniques for Bridge Retrofit Superstructure Retrofits Expansion Joints and Hinges • Steel Bracing and Diaphragms • Concrete Edge Beams Fadel Alameddine California Department of Transportation 43.4 Substructure Retrofits Concrete Columns • Pier Walls • Steel Bents • Bearing Retrofit • Shear Key Retrofit • Cap Beam Retrofit • Abutments • Foundations Thomas E. Sardo California Department of Transportation 43.5 Summary 43.

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