Designer drugs

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  • The abuse of amphetamines is of national concern from a public health perspective. Review of this subject is timely and important, because the problem of amphetamine-like drugs has recently been amplified by the introduction of designer drugs in the illicit market. There has been an increasing number of attempts by chemists in clandestine laboratories to synthesize structurally altered congeners that might intensify the moodaltering property of this class of compounds.

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  • Introduction: 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamines (MDAs), which were described as a new drug class “entactogens” a by Nichols [1], are being abused to enhance mutual understanding, communicativeness and empathy together with their hallucinogenic effects [1–3]. They are known as a group of designer drugs, and include 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine(MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine(MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) and N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine(MBDB) ( Fig. 7.1). Of the MDAs, MDA, MDMA and MDEA are strictly controlled by laws b.

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  • Drug Administration be very precise. (Standardized medicinal teaspoons and tablespoons are available.) Eye drops and nose drops (A) are designed for application to the mucosal surfaces of the eye (conjunctival sac) and nasal cavity, respectively. In order to prolong contact time, nasal drops are formulated as solutions of increased viscosity. Solid dosage forms include tablets, coated tablets, and capsules (B). Tablets have a disk-like shape, produced by mechanical compression of active substance, filler (e.g., lactose, calcium sulfate), binder, and auxiliary material (excipients).

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  • In a certain sense, the field of drug metabolism (DM) is standing still. More specifically, the basic experiment of drug metabolism (i.e., administering a new drug to an animal or human and determining the structures, amounts, and disposition of the metabolites) has changed very little over a period of decades. Remarkably, the experimental design and resulting data set from a typical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) study conducted today would be instantly recognized and understood by DM scientists from 50 years ago.

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  • A key component of the quality of pharmaceutical drugs is the control of impurities. It is important to identify and quantify levels of impurities that may be present to provide safe, effective and well-controlled medicines. The measurement and identification of impurities to today’s standards presents significant challenges to the analytical chemist.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'medicinal chemistry and drug design edited by deniz ekinci', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Discovery of a new chemical entity that exerts pharmacological effects for curing or treating diseases or relieving symptoms is only the first step in the drug developmental process. In the developmental cycle of a new drug, the delivery of a desired amount of a therapeutic agent to the target at a specific time or duration is as important as its discovery. In order to realize the optimal therapeutic outcomes, a delivery system should be designed to achieve the optimal drug concentration at a predetermined rate and at the desired location....

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  • he Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Serv. (CMS) allows Part D plans to utilize different tiers with different levels of cost sharing as a way of managing drug utilization and spending. One such tier, the specialty tier, is designed for high-cost drugs (HCD) whose prices exceed a certain threshold. Beneficiaries who use these

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  • Tham khảo sách 'drug safety fda has begun efforts to enhance postmarket safety', công nghệ thông tin, kỹ thuật lập trình phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • For over 50 years, interest has been expressed in optimizing drug therapy through delivery system design. For many years this revolved around incorporating drugs into erodible or inert polymers, which then acted as platforms for controlled release, an approach that has been well reviewed in the literature.

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  • This contribution book collects reviews and original articles from eminent experts working in the interdisciplinary arena of novel drug delivery systems and their uses. From their direct and recent experience, the readers can achieve a wide vision on the new and ongoing potentialities of different drug delivery systems. Since the advent of analytical techniques and capabilities to measure particle sizes in nanometer ranges, there has been tremendous interest in the use of nanoparticles for more efficient methods of drug delivery.

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  • Medicinal chemistry is a discipline at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents (drugs). Compounds used in medical applications are most often organic compounds, which are often divided into the broad classes of small organic molecules and biologics, the latter of which are most often medicinal preparations of proteins. Inorganic and organometallic compounds are also useful as drugs.

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  • Preclinical drug development. Discovery of new drugs in the laboratory is an exercise in prediction • Techniques of discovery. Sophisticated molecular modelling allows precise design of potential new therapeutic substances and new technologies have increased the rate of development of potential medicines. Studies in animals and in humans Prediction. Failures of prediction occur and a drug may be abandoned at any stage, including after marketing. New drug development is a colossally expensive and commercially driven activity. ...

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  • Carbohydrates are sugars and starches derived from cereals, tubers, roots, and other substances such as cellulose and lignin from plant cell walls, vessels and woody tissues. Carbohydrates do mainly provide energy for maintenance and production. A surplus of energy is stored as body fat. A part of the carbohydrates is crude fibre (CF), the remaining is nitrogen-free extract (NFE). The latter consists of sugars, starches and sugar-like substances. Sugars and starches are much easier to digest than CF.

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  • We must be daring and search after Truth; even if we do not succeed in finding her, we shall at least come closer than we are at present (Galen AD 130-200) SYNOPSIS (CONTINUED) Surveillance studies and the reporting of spontaneous adverse reactions respectively determine the clinical profile of the drug and detect rare adverse events. Further trials to compare new medicines with existing medicines are also required.These form the basis of cost-effectiveness comparisons.

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  • Quality control is a standard which certainly has become a style of living. With the improvement of technology every day, we meet new and complicated devices and methods in different fields. Quality control explains the directed use of testing to measure the achievement of a specific standard. It is the process, procedures and authority used to accept or reject all components, drug product containers, closures, in-process materials, packaging material, labeling and drug products, and the authority to review production records to assure that no errors have occurred....

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  • The eleventh edition of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology is a new book in two important ways. First, the addition of new Associate Editors to the editorial group has increased currency, depth, and breadth of coverage; second, conversion to fullcolor style has increased the clarity of presentation and total information content. At the same time, the overall organization has been improved and the educational content of previous editions has been expanded.

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  • The sixth edition of Modern Pharmacology With Clinical Applications continues our commitment to enlisting experts in pharmacology to provide a textbook that is up-to-date and comprehensive. Designed to be used during a single semester, the book focuses on the clinical application of drugs within a context of the major principles of pharmacology. It is meant to serve students in medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, pharmacy, and advanced nursing, as well as undergraduate students.

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  • Chemical substances have become an essential part of human activities. Proper use of chemical substances help human society protect itself from hunger, thirst, famine, disease, and infection with good grains, fruits, and vegetables. Synthesis, formulations, and proper use of newer drugs and pharmaceuticals have offered the benefits of improved health care to society.

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  • Advanced Computer-Assisted Techniques in Drug Discovery edited by Han van de Waterbeemd .Methods and Principles in Medicinal Chemistry Edited by R. Mannhold P. Krogsgaard-Larsen H. Timmerman Volume 1 Hugo Kubinyi, QSAR: Hansch Analysis and Related Approaches Volume 2 Han van de Waterbeemd (ed.), Chemometric Methods in Molecular Design Volume 3 Han van de Waterbeemd (ed.), Advanced Computer- Assisted Techniques in Drug Discovery .Methods and Principles in Medicinal Chemistry edited by R. Mannhold, P. Krogsgaard-Larsen, H.

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