Security is now and has always been the primary
function of government. All societies require some
form of law enforcement capability to function
effectively. Throughout history, governments of all
types have relied on either public police agencies or
informal means to effect conformity to social norms,
standards, and laws. Given how essential law
enforcement is to society, it is surprising how little
we really know about how it actually functions. The
job of law enforcement is always complex and
This paper presents an approach to detection of the semantic types of relation arguments employing the WordNet hierarchy. Using the SemEval-2007 data, we show that the method allows to generalize relation arguments with high precision for such generic relations as Origin-Entity, Content-Container, Instrument-Agency and some other.
The Terrorism Risk Insurance Extension Act of 2005 requires the President’s
Working Group on Financial Markets (PWG) to perform an analysis regarding the long-
term availability and affordability of insurance for terrorism risk, including group life
coverage; and coverage for chemical, nuclear, biological, and radiological events; and to
submit a report of its findings to Congress by September 30, 2006.
In Japan, credit ratings issued by Designated Rating Agencies (DRA) are used to estimate
market risks and counterparty risks for the purpose of calculating the capital adequacy ratios
for securities companies.
Japan also noted that for calculating the capital adequacy ratios
for banks and other deposit-taking institutions, credit ratings issued by ECAIs are used
subject to the Financial Services Agency (JFSA) ordinance under the Banking Act.
It is important to note, however, that no matter how or if they change,
UN agencies and other global entities can only be as useful as individual
governments allow them to be. The agencies serve the governments,
which have ultimate responsibility for overseeing service provision for
their citizens. Global partners can and should offer extensive support to
governments that show a clear interest in developing realistic policies and
programmes to reduce vertical transmission.
This publication is made possible by the generous support of the American people through
the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), under the terms of the
TransLinks Leader with Associates Cooperative Agreement No.EPP-A-00-06-00014-00 to
The Wildlife Conservation Society. TransLinks is a partnership of The Wildlife Conservation
Society, The Earth Institute, EnterpriseWorks/VITA, Forest Trends and The Land Tenure
Center. The contents are the responsibility of EnterpriseWorks/VITA and do not necessarily
reflect the views of USAID or the United States government.
Film scholar and author Shoma Chatterji (Subject: Cinema, Object: Women, 1998) says, “Women in Hindi
cinema have been decorative objects with rarely any sense of agency being imparted to them. Each phase of
Hindi cinema had its own representation of women, but they were confined largely to the traditional, patriarchal
frame-work of the Indian society. The ordinary woman has hardly been visible in Hindi cinema.”
understand this portrayal in much more depth, we need to have a look at some crucial glimpses which defined
the role of women in Hindi films.
The Environment Agency plays a central role in managing flood risk from rivers and the sea. We have the strategic
overview role for flood risk management from all causes of flooding, including rivers, the sea, groundwater,
reservoirs and surface water. This report explains how we tackle the risk of flooding in England, looking mainly at
flooding from rivers and the sea.
Flooding is a part of nature. It is neither technically feasible nor economically affordable to prevent all properties
The iconic two-century-old Capitol hill landmark operates under the
jurisdiction of the Architect of the Capitol, the agency responsible for
historical preservation and incorporating energy-efficiency features.
Once the new equipment financed by the bank is installed and
operational, annual energy savings are expected to reach 4,637
megawatt hours of electricity and 107,587 million BTus (British
thermal units) of steam and chilled water energy. In the first full
year alone, the financial savings from this initiative are projected
to be $2.3 million.
Serving New Zealand’s future needs means we have to make sure that the
education system performs well for Māori and that the needs of Māori children in
education are met.
This report describes the history of education policy and developments for
Māori, sets out some leading research and statistics, and describes the role of
the various government agencies involved in education. Under the Ministry of
Education’s Ka Hikitia – Managing for Success strategy, there are many initiatives
and programmes to lift Māori participation, engagement, and achievement.
Consequently, as the scope and design of the WTC have evolved, particularly in response to the
national symbolic objectives and security concerns that have permeated the development, the
required costs of rebuilding have correspondingly expanded. The objective of completing the
Memorial by the ten‐year anniversary of September 11 became a public mandate to reflect the
profound national symbolism of the WTC’s timely resurrection.
Inspection, on the other hand, is defined as that monitoring function con-
ducted in an organization to locate and report existing and potential hazards
that could cause accidents in the workplace. Legally, the Occupational Safety
and Health Administration (OSHA) or the Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) conducts inspections.What we are discussing are discussing are surveys,
not inspections. Safety surveys frequently reveal potential causes of accidents
and, thus, provide an opportunity to take corrective action before an injury
Switzerland's policy for improving air quality "must be pursued with determination," the
agency added. "In particular, this means using more advanced technologies and
introducing stricter norms for nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulates."
The agency said one reason for the smaller than anticipated decrease in polluting
emissions is the projected increase in truck traffic despite the Swiss government's efforts
to encourage trucks crossing through Switzerland to be put on rail cars through the use
of road tolls and quotas on truck traffic.
Locating property outside the floodplain is a prime way to reduce flood risk. If this is not practical, siting new
buildings in areas of lowest risk is the next choice. Local planning authorities must now consult the Environment
Agency on planning applications where the proposed development is at risk from flooding or is likely to increase
the risk of flooding elsewhere.
The latest figures for 2007-2008 show that the Environment Agency’s advice is, in the main, accepted.
Overall, the quality of SAR reporting has been quite good, indicating that insur-
ance companies are well positioned to report to law enforcement several specific
categories of suspected illicit activities relating to money laundering. In addition,
they are equally poised to provide through SARs, information that may benefit the
mission of state regulatory agencies.
FinCEN analysts read and reviewed each of the 641 SARs filed by insurance com-
panies between May 2, 2006 and May 1, 2007.
To date, there has been no explicitly systematic review of the available literature on this
topic. In contrast to non-systematic reviews which can be biased and incomplete, the
prime purpose of systematic reviews of literature is to provide a comprehensive display of
all available evidence in a common format. Systematic reviews have clear principles for
their conduct. First, the process of the review should be carried out according to a pre-
specified method. Second, the proposed method should be open to public scrutiny and
In the Basel II framework, external ratings are used for the purpose of enhancing the risk
sensitivity of the framework, for example, by being incorporated into assessments of the
credit quality of an exposure or creditworthiness of a counterparty – and thus the imposition
of capital requirements. External ratings are primarily used under the standardised approach
for credit risk,
but also to risk-weight securitisations exposures.
In most cases, for member jurisdictions that have incorporated the Basel II framework, the
external ratings that can be used for the purpose of determining regulatory capital are limited
to those provided by rating agencies recognised by national supervisors as ECAIs.
Supervisors assess whether these criteria are fulfilled and aim at identifying rating agencies
that issue ratings that are sufficiently sound and robust to warrant using them to determine
the appropriate regulatory capital levels.
In Canada, a significant portion of an insurer’s capital requirement (especially for a life
insurer) arises from its exposure to credit risk. This component of the overall insurer capital
requirement is determined using asset default factors. For rated short term securities, bonds,
loans and private placements, these factors are based on the rating agency grade.