Concrete has been in use as a primary building material since Roman times. As it is
strong in compression but weak in tension, it was used in arches, vaults and walls
where it is stressed principally in compression.
In the mid-nineteenth century, it was discovered that iron and later steel bars could
be embedded in the concrete, effectively giving it tensile strength. This allowed it to be
used in beams and slabs, where it worked in bending. Buildings, bridges, retaining walls
and many other structures were made in this reinforced concrete.
The bremsstrahlung beam with energy end point of 65M eV created when the e− beam with energy of 65M eV irradiated to thin wolfram target was used to irradiate to TiO2 sample in order to make the 46 Ti (γ, pn)44m,g Sc reaction. The gamma spectrum
of Sc44m,g was analyzed by the gammavision spectrometry with HPGe detector at linear accelerator laboratory in POSTECH, Korea.
The following will be discussed in this chapter: Introduction, shear on the horizontal face of a beam element, determination of the shearing stress, longitudinal shear on a beam element of arbitrary shape, shearing stresses in thin-walled members, unsymmetric loading of thin-walled members.
The following will be discussed in this chapter: Deformation of a beam under transverse loading, equation of the elastic curve, direct determination of the elastic curve from the load di, statically indeterminate beams, application of superposition to statically indeterminate, moment-area theorems,...
(BQ) The objective of ebook Structural analysis is to develop an understanding of the basic principles of structural analysis. Emphasizing the intuitive classical ap proach, structural analysis covers the analysis of statically determinate and indeterminate beams, trusses, and rigid frames. It also presents an introduction to the matrix analysis of structures.
E =4400 ksi, Poissons Ratio = 0.2
f’c = 6 ksi
Cable Tension = 200 kips
Determine the moment diagram for a DL + LL + PRESTRESS loading
combination. Compare the results using 4 output segments and using
30 output segments.
E = 3120 ksi
Poissons Ratio = 0.2
Determine the moment diagram under combined dead plus live loads
and the maximum downward displacement.
Note: Dead load shown does not include beam self weight.
E =3600 ksi, Poissons Ratio = 0.2
f ’c = 4 ksi
fy = 60 ksi
Concrete cover to longitudinal rebar center at top of beam = 3.5 in
Concrete cover to longitudinal rebar center at bottom of beam = 2.5 in
Determine required longitudinal reinforcing steel and required shear
stirrups based on ACI 318-95
Determine midspan deflection of beam. Ignore the self weight of the beam.
Create the model as follows:
1. From the File menu, choose New Model From Template. Select the
Beam template in the upper left hand corner. Set the number of
spans to one.
2. Define the frame section properties.
3. Apply the loads to the beam.
4. Use the Divide Frames option in the Edit Menu to break the beam
into two elements with a joint at the center.
ANN can be seen as a parallel distributed information processing structure; ANN has the ability to learn, recall, and generalize from training data by assigning and adjusting the interconnection weights; the overall function is determined by.
The term “CMOS MEMS” most often describes pro-
cesses that create microstructures directly out of the metal/
dielectric interconnect stack in foundry CMOS. The metal-
lization and dielectric layers, normally used for electrical
interconnect, now serve a dual function as structural layers.
For example, the suspended n-well of Figure 3(d) is consid-
ered CMOS MEMS, since its beam suspension is made
from the CMOS interconnect stack.
There is significant motivation for making MEMS out
of CMOS. Leveraging foundry CMOS for MEMS is fast,
reliable, repeatable, and economical.
3D printers are the fastest growing type of personal manufacturing machine, and
perhaps the best publicized by the popular press. 3D printers use as an additive
process, meaning they make objects by systematically depositing a chosen raw
material in layers. Somewhat similar in concept to that of an inkjet printer that
orchestrates different colored print cartridges to form an image onto paper, the most
common household 3D printing process involves a “print head” that works with any
material that can be extruded, or squirted through a nozzle.
C H A P T E R
A Textbook of Machine Design
Torsional and Bending Stresses in Machine Parts
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Introduction. Torsional Shear Stress. Shafts in Series and Parallel. Bending Stress in Straight Beams. Bending Stress in Cur ved Beams. Pr incipal Stresses and Principal Planes. Determination of Principal Stresses for a Member Subjected to Biaxial Stress. Application of Principal Stresses in Designing Machine Members. Theories of Failure under Static Load.
The size and principal
characteristics of a new ship are determined primarily
by its mission or intended service. In addition to
basic functional considerations, there are requirements
such as stability, low resistance, high propulsive efficiency,
and navigational limitations on draft or beam, all
of which influence the choice of dimensions and form.
Within these and other basic constraints, the ship’s structure
must be designed to sustain all of the loads expected
to arise in its seagoing environment.
Flow cytometry is a technology that simultaneously measures and analyses multiple
physical characteristics of single particles, usually cells, as they flow in a fluid stream
through a beam of light. The properties measured include a particle’s relative size
(represented by forward angle light scatter), relative granularity or internal complexity
(represented by right-angle scatter), and relative fluorescence intensity.
Torsional Shear Stress. Shafts in Series and Parallel. Bending Stress in Straight Beams. Bending Stress in Cur ved Beams. Pr incipal Stresses and Principal Planes. Determination of Principal Stresses for a Member Subjected to Biaxial Stress. Application of Principal Stresses in Designing Machine Members. Theories of Failure under Static Load. Maximum Principal or Nor mal Stress Theor y (Rankine’s Theory). Maximum Shear Stress Theory (Guest’s or Tresca’s Theory). Maximum Principal Strain Theor y (Saint Venant’s Theory). Maximum Strain Energy Theory (Haigh’s Theory).
Cable Force Adjustment and Construction Control
58.1 58.2 Introduction Determination of Designed Cable Forces
Simply Supported Beam Method • Method of Continuous Beam on Rigid Supports • Optimization Method • Example
Adjustment of the Cable Forces
General • Inﬂuence Matrix of the Cable Forces • Linear Programming Method • Order of Cable Adjustment
Simulation of Construction Process
General • Forward Assemblage Analysis • Backward Disassemblage Analysis
South China University of Technology
This paper proposes a method for incrementally understanding user utterances whose semantic boundaries are not known and responding in real time even before boundaries are determined. It is an integrated parsing and discourse processing method that updates the partial result of understanding word by word, enabling responses based on the partial result. This method incrementally finds plausible sequences of utterances that play crucial roles in the task execution of dialogues, and utilizes beam search to deal with the ambiguity of boundaries as well as syntactic and semantic ambiguities. ...