Titrimetry refers to that group of analytical techniques which takes advantage of titers or concentrations of solutions. The word "titer" is also used to denote "equivalence" or that amount of a solution required to complete a chemical reaction.
Titrimetry often refers to the use of some volume of a solution of known concentration to determine the quantity of an analyte. But there are some variations on the use of the term.
Chapter 24 - Carbohydrates. After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Given a molecule in a fisher projection, be able to convert it to a wedge/dash representation and vice versa; given a hexopyranose, be able to determine the configuration of the anomeric carbon stereocenter as α or β.
Chapter 13 - Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this chapter, students will be able to understand: Use the chemical shifts, splitting patterns, and integrations shown in a proton NMR spectrum to propose structures for possible compounds; use the number of peaks and their chemical shifts in a 13C NMR spectrum to determine the number of types of carbon atoms in the compound and what functional groups they might represent;...
Chapter 14 introduce to ethers, epoxides, and sulfides. After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Draw and name ethers and heterocyclic ethers, including epoxides; explain the trends in their boiling points, solubilities, and solvent properties; determine the structures of ethers from their spectra, and explain their characteristic absorptions and fragmentations;...
Chapter 15 - Conjugated systems, orbital symmetry, and ultraviolet spectroscopy. In this chapter, we consider the unique properties of conjugated systems, the theoretical reasons for this extra stability, and some of the characteristic reactions of molecules containing conjugated double bonds. We also study ultraviolet spectroscopy, a tool for determining the structures of conjugated systems.
In this chapter, we discuss some of the fundamental principles of polymer chemistry. We begin with a survey of the different kinds of polymers, then consider the reactions used to induce polymerization. Finally, we discuss some of the structural characteristics that determine the physical properties of a polymer.
This engineer manual (EM) describes the inspection, evaluation, and repair of hydraulic steel structures, including preinspection identification of critical locations (such as fracture critical members and various connections) that require close examination. Nondestructive testing techniques that may be used during periodic
inspections or detailed structural inspections are discussed. Guidance is provided on material testing to determine the chemistry, strength, ductility, hardness, and toughness of the base and weld metal....
Two of the main distinctions between chemical engineers and other engineering disciplines are the topics
of mass and energy balances. Within these two topics there are a lot of underlying chemical principles that
help chemical engineers to perform calculations to determine what is happening in a system, allowing
better control of a process.
established in the earliest history of the planet or as
the result of a continuing supply of water and the
constituents of sea water by degassing from the
In 1951 W.W. Rubey, in his Presidential Address to
the Geological Society of America, took the latter point
of view. His arguments were colored by the knowledge
available at that time of the age of the Earth and the
age of the oldest rocks. Based on the analysis of lead
isotopes in galenas, it was determined in the late 1940s
that the Earth was about 3.2 billion years old.
Beer has been a popular beverage for thousands of years and brewing is
often described as the oldest biotechnological process. Over the years the
brewmaster’s art has been supplemented by vast increases in our knowledge
of the chemistry and biochemistry both of the ingredients and of the
changes taking place to those ingredients during brewing. Together these
contribute to give the products we recognise today - a wide range of
different but consistently high quality beer types.
Our primary objective herein is not to determine how approximate calculations introduce
errors into situations with accurate hypotheses, but instead to study how rigorous
calculations transmit errors due to inaccurate parameters or hypotheses. Unlike quantities
represented by entire numbers, the continuous quantities generated from physics,
economics or engineering sciences, as represented by one or several real numbers, are
compromised by errors.
This manual describes the inspection, evaluation, and repair of hydraulic steel structures,
including preinspection identification of critical locations (such as fracture critical members and various
connections) that require close examination. Nondestructive testing techniques that may be used during
periodic inspections or detailed structural inspections are discussed. Guidance is provided on material
testing to determine the chemistry, strength, ductility, hardness, and toughness of the base and weld metal....
When planning how to reduce the threat of global warming and how to adapt to it, a
very important piece of information is how intense the change will be. That implies
estimating the trends of future concentrations of greenhouse gasses, and the potential
future changes in temperature, precipitation, storm events and other climatic
variables. These predictions are important not only to estimate the magnitude of the
changes, but also to determine the uncertainty surrounding them.
In a certain sense, the field of drug metabolism (DM) is standing still. More
specifically, the basic experiment of drug metabolism (i.e., administering a new
drug to an animal or human and determining the structures, amounts, and
disposition of the metabolites) has changed very little over a period of decades.
Remarkably, the experimental design and resulting data set from a typical
absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) study conducted
today would be instantly recognized and understood by DM scientists from 50
Tham khảo sách 'us army corps of engineer inspection evaluation and repair of hydraulic steel structures', kỹ thuật - công nghệ, cơ khí - chế tạo máy phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả
Data of unknown quality are useless! All laboratory measurements contain experimental error.
It is necessary to determine the magnitude of the accuracy and reliability in your measurements. Then you can make a judgment about their usefulness.
Replicates - two or more determinations on the same sample Example 3-1: One student measures Fe (III) concentrations six times. The results are listed below: 19.4, 19.5, 19. 6, 19.8, 20.1, 20.3 ppm (parts per million) 6 replicates = 6 measurements The "middle" or "central" value for a group of results: Mean: average or arithmetic mean
Establishing confidence limits for a mean of a set of replicate data Determining the number of replications Determining at a given probability whether an experimental mean is at the acceptable range Determining at a given prob.Term & Definition
Confidence Limit (CL): define an interval around mean ( x ) that probably contains population mean (μ).
Analytical chemistry is the study of the separation, identification, and quantification of the chemical components of natural and artificial materials. Qualitative analysis gives an indication of the identity of the chemical species in the sample and quantitative analysis determines the amount of one or more of these components. The separation of components is often performed prior to analysis
Amines are organic derivatives of ammonia with one or more alkyl or aryl groups bonded to the nitrogen atom. As a class, amines include some of the most important biological compounds. Amines serve many functions in living organisms, such as bioregulation, neurotransmission, and defense against predators. This chapter draw and name amines, and use spectral information to determine their structures; compare the basicity of amines with other common bases, and explain how their basicity varies with hybridization, aromaticity, resonance, and induction.
The oxide reduction diffusion (ORD) procedure has recently been applied in synthesizing hydrogen storage materials AB5 for Ni-MH batteries. Starting from metal hydroxides and La oxalat precursor, superfine powder alloys LaNi5, LaNi4.5Co0.5 and LaNi3.87Mn1.13 were obtained by this “soft-chemistry” route. Chemical composition, structure and morphology of alloy phases were examined by different analysis techniques such as AAS, EPMA, X-ray and TEM. The H2-absorption and desorption behavior of crystalline products was determined by Sieverts’ method.