Global warming resulting from the use of fossil fuels is threatening the environment
and energy efficiency is one of the most important ways to reduce this threat. Industry,
transport and buildings are all high energy-using sectors in the world and even in the most
technologically optimistic perspectives energy use is projected to increase in the next 50 years.
How and when energy is used determines society’s ability to create long-term sustainable
Before we can talk about solar power, we need to talk
about the sun
• Need to know how much sunlight is available
• Can predict where the sun is at any time
• Insolation : incident solar radiation
• Want to determine the average daily insolation at a site
• Want to be able to chose effective locations and panel
tilts of solar panels
Metabolizable energy (ME) energy is used to denote the energy value of feed for poultry. ME can be expressed as values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME). AME is used to determine the exchange energy food for birds. Vietnam Nehring methods used to estimate the AME value of the raw material fed to chickens. This method is usually the error is large and ...
he Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, the House
Committee on Foreign Affairs, the House Committee on Energy
and Commerce, the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, and
the House Subcommittee on International Development, Finance,
and Monetary Policy requested an assessment of energy and environmental
technology transfer to Central Europe and the former Soviet
Union. The intent was to determine how U.S. energy technology can help
resolve the economic and environmental problems in the region....
The bremsstrahlung beam with energy end point of 65M eV created when the e− beam with energy of 65M eV irradiated to thin wolfram target was used to irradiate to TiO2 sample in order to make the 46 Ti (γ, pn)44m,g Sc reaction. The gamma spectrum
of Sc44m,g was analyzed by the gammavision spectrometry with HPGe detector at linear accelerator laboratory in POSTECH, Korea.
Bremsstrahlung energy spectrum from thin W target produced by 15 MeV incident electrons was determined by a combination of measurements and theoretical calculation. The shape of spectrum was calculated by Monte-Carlo method using the code EGS4. The photon flux measurements were performed based on the activation technique using the high pure metallic foils. The radioactivities of the irradiated foils were measured by using a gamma spectrometer with a high energy resolution HPGe detector.
Clean renewable energy bonds (CREBs) present a low-cost opportunity for public entities to issue bonds to finance renewable energy projects. The federal government lowers the cost of debt by providing a tax credit to the bondholders in lieu of interest payments from the issuer. Because CREBs are theoretically interest free, they may be more attractive than traditional tax-exempt municipal bonds.
In February 2009, Congress appropriated a total of $2.4 billion for the “New CREBs” program.
This chapter presents the following content: Forces and torques in magnetic field systems, energy balance, energy in singly – excited magnetic field systems, determination of magnetic force and torque from energy and coenergy, multiply – excited magnetic field systems, forces and torques in systems with permanent magnets, dynamic equations, analytical techniques.
This chapter include contents: Introduction to Polyphase Induction Machines, currents and fluxes in Polyphase Induction Machines, induction – motor equivalent circuit, analysis of the equivalent circuit, torque and power by use of Thevenin’s theorem, parameter determination from no – load and blocked – rotor tests, effects of rotor resistance.
The earthquake motion is assigned
classified by Japan's land area is classified into three categories according to level
seismic risk and adjust the seismic motion by using the regional adjustment factor of 1.0, 0.85
and 0.7 depending on the classification of the area.
Meanwhile, the studies to calculate seismic waveforms unique to the target area of seismic
design has been conducted in recent years.
One of the most fundamental question that an Engineer has to ask him/herself is what is how does
it deform, and when does it break. Ultimately, it its the answer to those two questions which would
provide us with not only a proper safety assesment of a structure, but also how to properly design it.
Ironically, botht he ACI and the AISC codes are based on limit state design, yet practically all design
analyses are linear and elastic.
The main topic of "Fuel injection in automotive engineering" book is fundamental process that determines the development of internal combustion engines and performances of automotive vehicles. The book collects original works focused on up-to-date issues relevant to improving injection phenomena per se and injection systems as the engine key components.
An important aspect of nuclear reactor core analysis involves the determination of the optimal coolant flow distribution and pressure drop across the reactor core. On the one hand, higher coolant flow rates will lead to better heat transfer coefficients and higher Critical Heat Flux (CHF) limits. On the other hand, higher flows rates will also in large pressure drops across the reactor core, hence larger required pumping powers and larger dynamic loads on the core components.
The possibility of producing ethanol from biomass such as maize cobs and groundnut shells was investigated. Different concentrations of sulphuric acid (H2SO4) were used to determine the acid concentration that could produce an optimal yield of glucose. The results revealed that 4.5M H2SO4 produced the optimal yield of glucose and ethanol. This acid concentration was then used for the study of temperature effects on yield of glucose. The results indicated that glucose yield increased with temperature within the experimental set-up....
In the early 1970s, it was clear that the world economy was facing recession and that
the four-fold increase in crude-oil prices by OPEC, a monetary crisis, and inflation
were the main reasons for such a trend. The four-fold increase in crude-oil prices
in 1974, which was intensified in 1979, is why 1974 and 1979 are called the years
of “the first” and “the second crude-oil shock”, respectively. Increases in crude-oil
prices had an effect on all importing countries, more precisely on their economic
Two of the main distinctions between chemical engineers and other engineering disciplines are the topics
of mass and energy balances. Within these two topics there are a lot of underlying chemical principles that
help chemical engineers to perform calculations to determine what is happening in a system, allowing
better control of a process.
The atmosphere is the layer of air surrounding the earth and its structure below 50 km
is most important in determining pollution levels. In this sense, greenhouse effect and
climate change are evoking a special interest recently since they are considered to be
human hazards. Greenhouse effect is produced by infrared radiations, imprisoned
between the earth and the thin layer of greenhouse gases, which get reflected and heat
up the earth’s surface.
Recently, several solutions to the robot localisation problem have been proposed in the scientific
community. In this chapter we present a localisation of a visual guided quadruped
walking robot in a dynamic environment. We investigate the quality of robot localisation and
landmark detection, in which robots perform the RoboCup competition (Kitano et al., 1997).
The first part presents an algorithm to determine any entity of interest in a global reference
frame, where the robot needs to locate landmarks within its surroundings.
Sharpness of vision (visual acuity) gradually declines and eventually bifocals are need. One may be less able to tolerate glare, and may have more trouble adapting to darkness or bright light.
The fluid inside eye may change. Small particles can create "floaters" in the vision not a dangerous condition. However if someone suddenly develop floaters or have a rapid increase in the number of them, she should have checked her eyes by a professional.
Energy and human life are closely liked. Civilization, present and future, depends on energy
to provide the facilities the human race needs.
The world being created today will determine the outcome of a number of issues and
conflicting demands, which we only now beginning to identify. Whilst their resolution will
fashion the future world, the immediate challenge is to provide enough energy, water and
food, to raise the standard of living of the ever-increasing world population without
“imperiling our irreplaceable environment”....