The welfare of the donor, and the potential for harm and exploitation within donation
practices, should be a key determining factor when considering the ethical acceptability of any
system for encouraging people to come forward as donors. While proper consent procedures,
underpinned by sufficient information, are clearly essential in order to protect those coming
forward as living donors, consent alone may not be sufficient to justify particular donation
practices if such practices might put other potential donors, or wider communal values, at risk.
First, standard cross-sectional determinants of firms’ capital structures also apply to
large, publicly traded banks in the US and Europe, except for banks close to the
minimum capital requirement. The sign and significance of the effect of most variables
on bank capital structure are identical to the estimates found for non-financial firms.
This is true for both book and market leverage, Tier 1 capital, when controlling for risk
and macro factors, for US and EU banks examined separately, as well as when
examining a series of cross-sectional regressions over time. ...
The availability of crop insurance for a particular crop in a particular region is an administrative
decision made by USDA. The decision is made on a crop-by-crop and county-by-county basis,
based on farmer demand for coverage and the level of risk associated with the crop in the region,
among other factors. In areas where a policy is not available, farmers may request that RMA
expand the program to their county. The process usually starts with a pilot program in order for
RMA to gain experience and test the program components before it becomes more widely
This study utilized the methodology from Ray and col-
leagues to estimate the per-day cost attributable to
adhesiolysis . Cost per day was estimated by dividing
the total cost of adhesiolysis-related hospitalizations
divided by the total number of adhesiolysis-related inpa-
tient days. The total inpatient expenditures attributable
to adhesiolysis were estimated by multiplying the esti-
mated cost per day attributable to adhesiolysis by the
number of days attributed to adhesiolysis.
The Water Quality Act of 1965 (WQA) was the first major statutory attempt to address
the nation’s growing water quality problems. The Act proved to be a weak basis for enforcement
authority, but did yield one major improvement: the development of ambient water quality
standards. States were called upon to set their own standards and given flexibility to determine
how standards would be met. The Act’s major weakness was that it gave no concrete authority
to force effluent reductions by specific polluters.
Automated service quality has been recognised as the factor which determines the suc cess or failure of electronic commerce. Those models current ly available to measure automated service quality are limited in their focus, encompassing only one electronic channel – the internet – thereby ignoring attributes of the other automated service channels.
In this chapter: Explain how exchange rate movements are measured, explain how the equilibrium exchange rate is determined, examine factors that determine the equilibrium exchange rate, explain the movement in cross exchange rates, explain how financial institutions attempt to capitalize on anticipated exchange rate movements.
Reviews the primary literature and empirical findings related to three major factors that affect military personnel productivity: experience, training, and ability. The majority of studies concerning the relationship between productivity and experience, training, or aptitude find that each of these three factors contributes significantly to
As a prologue to these activities, the Research and Evaluation Division of
BRAC (www.bracresearch.org) has carried out a review of the existing
MNCH programmes in Bangladesh undertaken by the government, NGOs
and private sectors to identify best practices and the factors behind
successes and failures, thereby pinpointing gaps and challenges. This
provides an evidence base to develop informed intervention components,
approaches and strategies for the MNCH initiatives in the country and
endow with directions for future advocacy efforts.
Many factors are thought to increase the chances of misrecognizing a word in ASR, including low frequency, nearby disﬂuencies, short duration, and being at the start of a turn. However, few of these factors have been formally examined. This paper analyzes a variety of lexical, prosodic, and disﬂuency factors to determine which are likely to increase ASR error rates. Findings include the following.
Discover how to understand the attraction of department stores under perspective of shoppers, rather than from the perspective of operators of department stores. Since then, seeks way to measure it. Discover the determinants of customer attraction of the department stores under the perspectives of shoppers, measure the impact of these factors to the attractiveness of the department stores. Conduct shopper segmentation based on their expectations for factor of attraction of going department stores.
In the last decade, scientists began to use signaling molecules such as growth factors in their
quest to restore destroyed tooth support (Anusaksathien & Giannobile, 2002) and this
reason request a very good knowledge of the biological actions of growth factors, both
summative and redundant, in the specific “milieu” of periodontal diseases.
Labour is the most important human activity creating society's material riches and spiritual values. Labour of a high level of productivity, quality and efficiency is the determining factor in national development. Labour law lays down the rights and obligations of workers and employers, labour standards, the principles of labour utilization and administration; contributes to the uplift of production, and therefore holds an important place in social life and in the legal system of the nation.
Asset pricing theory tries to understand the prices or values of claims to uncertain payments.
A low price implies a high rate of return, so one can also think of the theory as explaining
why some assets pay higher average returns than others.
To value an asset, we have to account for the delay and for the risk of its payments. The
effects of time are not too difficult to work out. However, corrections for risk are much
more important determinants of an many assets’ values. For example, over the last 50 years
U.S. stocks have given a real return of about 9% on average. Of...
4 Water management
Water, its quantity and quality, can be a major determining factor in the success or failure of a farm. These features also have an influence on determining how the water will be used on the farm. Water is commonly used on farms for:
provides insight into the early assessment process and the application of precaution,
an often poorly described management action rarely captured in peer review
literature. The situation surrounding this potential new threat to blood safety was
largely resolved in mid-2011 when it was determined that the virus was an artifact
from contaminated patient samples and from contamination stemming from a
diagnostic test kit widely used by researchers.
This working paper focuses on the relevance of social, socioeconomic and behavioural
factors on health status and mortality in a longitudinal setting and in a life-course perspective.
First, we identify those factors which determine the health status of people aged 60+ in
Germany. Based on this, our second aim is to find factors which determine transitions from
good general health status, or from the absence of specific diseases, to a bad general health
status or the presence of specific diseases.
If you are like most small businesses, your dreams came to life one day when you realized you were tired of
working for someone else and decided you were going to start your own business. You had no idea how you were
going to do it, but you were determined to make it happen. You were not concerned with the small details as you
had great ideas as to how the office would look or the showroom floor. You focused on products or services and
what they would do for people. Maybe you even joined network marketing instead of a traditional business and