It is widely accepted that technology is one of the forces driving economic growth.
Although more and more new technologies have emerged, various evidence shows
that their performances were not as high as expected. In both academia and practice
there are still many questions about what technologies to adopt and how to manage
PUBLIC GOODS, PRIVATE INCENTIVES, AND AGRICULTURAL R&D: PRODUCTIVITY AND POVERTY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRY AGRICULTURE Like Baker, McMillan, and Reuben (2002), I identify parental valuations by the
location of clusters of high income families: If parental preferences over communities depend
exclusively on the effectiveness of the local schools, the most desirableand therefore
wealthiestcommunities are necessarily those with the most effective schools.
TREE ESSAYS ON ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES This could be because effectiveness is swamped by the peer group in
parental preferences or because it is difficult to observe directly. In either case,
administrators who pursue unproductive policies are unlikely to be disciplined by parental
exit and Tiebout choice can create only weak incentives for productive school management.
MONEY DEMAND IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES : A DYNAMIC PANEL APPROACH Regardless of parental valuations,
then, families always prefer a high-μ house to one with lower μ . Because willingness-topay
for a preferred school is increasing in x, equilibrium is unique, with the ranking of
districts by effectiveness is identical to that by the income of the resident family.
Chapter 39 - The economics of developing countries. After studying this chapter you will be able to understand: Describe how the World Bank distinguishes between industrial advanced countries (high-income nations) and developing countries (middle-income and low-income nations), list some of the obstacles to economic development, explain the vicious circle of poverty that afflicts low-income nations, discuss the role of government in promoting economic development within low-income nations, describe how industrial nations attempt to aid low-income countries.
After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Describe how the World Bank distinguishes between industrial advanced countries (high-income nations) and developing countries (middle-income and low-income nations), list some of the obstacles to economic development, explain the vicious circle of poverty that afflicts low-income nations, discuss the role of government in promoting economic development within low-income nations.
This paper considers the main elements of the standard pattern of ﬁ nancial liberalization that
has become widely prevalent in developing countries. The theoretical arguments in favour of such liberalization are considered and critiqued, and the political economy of such measures is discussed. The problems for developing countries, with respect to ﬁ nancial fragility and the greater propensity to crisis, as well as the negative deﬂ ationary and developmental effects, are discussed.
With some six billion mobile subscriptions now in use worldwide, around three-quarters of the world’s inhabitants now have access to a mobile phone. Mobiles are arguably the most ubiquitous modern technology in some developing countries, more people have access to a mobile phone than to clean water, a bank account or even electricity. Mobile communications now offer major opportunities to advance human development from providing basic access to education or health information to making cash payments and stimulating citizen involvement in democratic processes.
Populations in developing countries are growing so quickly that the land and
water are unable to sustain them. In most developing countries, prime farmland
and fresh water are already fully utilized. Although irrigation can be employed to
bring land in arid areas into production, it often leads to salinization. In some
countries, the amount of newly irrigated land is equalled by salinized irrigated
land going out of production. Moreover, irrigation water is often drawn from
river basins or aquifers shared by several countries, and friction over its use is
Men in French-speaking African countries have largely been left out of the family planning
equation. Men have had little opportunity to become involved as family planning partici -
pants or as advocates. Nevertheless, men’s interest is growing stronger, while contraceptive
use is increasing. In Senegal, for example, successive DHS show that the prevalence of mod-
ern contraceptive use quadrupled during the past decade, from 2% in 1986 to 8% in 1997.
Recent empirical research on the impact of privatization on financial and operating performance, labour, fiscal balances and distributional equity largely confirms the view that privatization can be beneficial for firms operating in a competitive market structure in middle-income countries.
This paper reviews the impacts of the changes on the main markets and examines the prospects for the market s and the source countries. The main conclusions are as follows: after the renewal of quantitative restrictions on Chinese garment exports were agreed with the US and the EU, the post-MFA surge in Chinese grment exports was significantly attenuated.
Develop initiatives to increase understanding of early social
and emotional development. Developing initiatives to increase
public understanding of the important developmental needs and
milestones for children, as well as information on supporting
those milestones, is a critical way to promote social, emotional and behavioral health.
Information about early childhood mental health, early indicators of risk and mental
health disorders and ways that parents can best support their child’s early social and
emotional development can be shared through a variety of means.
In this chapter, you will learn to solve these economic puzzles: Is trade a better “engine of growth” than foreign aid and loans? Why are some countries rich and others poor? Is there a difference between economic growth and economic development?...
Subjects of the thesis include: the formation and development history and the application of international law in anti-dumping dispute settlement at the WTO; the WTO's current conceptions on anti-dumping issue, anti-dumping disputes and international law applicable to the anti-dumping dispute settlement; the content of general and specific legal issues of the international law applicable to anti-dumping dispute settlement at the WTO.
The last two decades have witnessed an extensive growth in foreign direct investment
(FDI) flows to developing countries. This has been accompanied by an increase in
competition amongst the developing countries to attract FDI, resulting in a rise in
investment incentives offered by the host governments and removal of restrictions on
operations of foreign firms in their countries. This has also led to an ever-increasing
number of bilateral investment treaties (BITs) and regional agreements on...
This paper considers the main elements of the standard pattern of nancial liberalization that has fi become
widely prevalent in developing countries. The theoretical arguments in favour of such liberalization are
considered and critiqued, and the political economy of such measures is discussed. The problems for
developing countries, with respect to financial fragility and the greater propensity to crisis, as well as the
negative deflationary and developmental effects, are discussed.
This book provides information on the incidence of fungi and mycotoxins in some African countries, the health implications and possible intervention control strategies for mycotoxins in developing countries and in Africa in particular. It will therefore be of interest to students, educators, researchers and policy makers in the fields of medicine, agriculture, food science and technology, trade and economics. Food regulatory officers also have quite a lot to learn from the book.
Everyone is talking about small businesses. In 1993, when
it was allowed in Developing countries, more than 90,000
new firms were registered by individuals. Now, less than
three years later, official figures show that only 40,000 of
them still pay their dues and present annual financial
statements. These firms are called "active" - but this is a
misrepresentation. Only a very small fraction really does
business and produces income.
A second problem often observed in developing countries in the credit-investment process is
that loans are allocated according to political considerations or ties between bank managers
and the corporate sector. This practice is problematic for two reasons: First, even if the central
bank can create liquidity and the financial sector as a whole is thus not be constrained by a
lack of base money, banks in developing countries are often weakly capitalized. Legal
minimum capital-adequacy ratios hence limit the overall amount of loans provided by the