This report was prepared by a team from the OECD's Information Economy Unit of the Information,
Communications and Consumer Policy Division within the Directorate for Science, Technology and
Industry. The contributing authors were Chris Bruegge, Kayoko Ido, Taylor Reynolds, Cristina Serra-
Vallejo, Piotr Stryszowski and Rudolf Van Der Berg.
The case studies were drafted by Laura Recuero Virto of the OECD Development Centre with editing
by Elizabeth Nash and Vanda Legrandgerard.
The work benefitted from significant guidance and constructive comments from ISOC and UNESCO.
Guidelines for the Development and Application of Health, Safety and Environmental Management Systems includes Organisation, resources and documentation, Evaluation and risk management, Implementation and monitoring, Auditing and reviewing,...
The occupational and environmental safety and health professions have been on merging paths for several
years now. Corporate "down-sizing" or "right-sizing" has resulted in a more streamlined approach to these
once very diverse and quite separate disciplines. Although they both may now be practiced in tandem,
often by the same individuals, each has evolved and developed as a separate area of study. As such, there
are literally thousands of words, terms, and phrases that have specific meanings within their respective
disciplines that may not always be clear and simple....
Access to safe drinking water and sanitation is a basic necessity. However, such access is highly
variable around the world and in particular in Africa, Asia and South America. Much progress still
remains to be made in infrastructure improvements and poverty reduction. A recent World Bank
report, for example, noted that more than 100 million people in the Latin American region alone
lack access to potable water and adequate sanitation systems.
Compounding the issue of water availability is contamination of water supplies and the lack of
wastewater treatment facilities.
Our training site, Kitakyushu city is one of Japan’s four largest industrial zones. The city has a history in which the serious pollution problems occurred in the period of high economic growth 1950’s to 70’s, and the city has controlled the pollution by addressing it with the administration, companies and citizens as one. Especially, companies have achieved both industrial development and environmental conservation by developing CP which makes pollution measures consistent withenergy/resource saving with the guidance and support from the administration....
Following the vote of the EU Parliament plenary session of
11 November 2010, and without formally waiting for the entry into force of the Directive expected for mid-2011, work on the implementation phase has started. This work will span more than two years, and will consist of two main pillars: Member States will draft their implementing legislation while the Commission and ESMA (former CESR)6 will work on so-called “Level 2” measures or technical and regulatory guidelines for implementation.
The Interagency Working Group on Food Marketed to Children (Working Group),
comprised of representatives from the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), seeks public comment on a preliminary
proposal for voluntary principles to guide industry self-regulatory efforts to improve the
nutritional profile of foods marketed to children.
A response of the engineering profession to the challenges of security, poverty and
under-development, and environmental sustainability is described. Ethical codes,
which govern the behavior of engineers, are examined from a historical perspective
linking the prevailing codes to models of the natural world. A new ethical code based
on a recently introduced model of Nature as an integral community is provided and
discussed. Applications of the new code are described using a case study approach.
Listing standards may or may not address governance issues directly
and/or compliance with an applicable governance code may well be part of
individual listing agreements. In some instances, as mentioned above, listing
standards incorporate elements of the governance code (cf. the Australian
example). In other jurisdictions, additional governance standards - over and
above the governance code - have been introduced as part of the listing
requirements. For instance, the Stockholm Stock Exchange and the TSX both
impose such standards (e.g.
Bivariate and multivariate analyses were done to measure the effects of the interventions.
Knowledge of HIV/AIDS increased in the intervention sites compared to the control
sites, with greater improvement in Site B with the additional school-based intervention.
The knowledge of contraceptives improved in both intervention and control sites, with
the greatest improvement seen in Site A.
The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis can be made by the detection of acid fast bacilli by direct microscopy, using carbol fuchsin stain and/or fluorochrome stain. Microscopy is a rapid method but lacks sufficient sensitivity and does not distinguish between different species of mycobacteria. The sensitivity of microscopy is often not more than 25-40% as compared to culture, but under ideal conditions, it is possible to achieve a rate of 60-70%.
In the last 10-20 years epidemiology has dealt extensively with the effect of outdoor air pollution on
human health. A considerable number of case studies in different countries and under different
exposure situations have confirmed that air pollution is one of various risk-factors for morbidity and
In general, air pollution is a mixture of many substances (particulates, nitrogen oxides, sulfur
dioxides). Knowing that several indicators of exposure (eg. NO2, CO, PM10, TSP etc.
The linkage between model
results and monitoring data can be complicated if
monitoring programs are not designed to address
which parameters should be monitored, timing of
measurements, location, spatial scale, and resolution
of measurements to match with model parameters.
This is particularly valuable in the early stages of
a project when the opportunity exists to alter the
project to ensure long-term storage and improve
The Large Volume Organic Chemicals (LVOC) BREF (Best Available Techniques reference
document) reflects an information exchange carried out under Article 16(2) of Council Directive
96/61/EC. This Executive Summary - which is intended to be read in conjunction with both the
standard introduction to the BAT chapters and the BREF Preface’s explanations of objectives,
usage and legal terms - describes the main findings, the principal BAT conclusions and the
associated emission / consumption levels.
In contrast to the behavioural perspective, the Thoresen Report (2008, http://www.hm-
treasury.gov.uk/media/8/3/thoresenreview_final.pdf ) is implicitly based on the view that
poor financial decisions are to a significant extent due to remediable ignorance. It
advocates that the Government should fund the widespread provision of generic financial
advice (GFA). If this leads to significant changes in behaviour, the benefits would greatly
exceed the costs. According to the Report, the net present value of the gain is of the order
The Western Riverside County Multiple Species Habitat Conservation Plan (MSHCP) is an ambitious effort to balance development and environmental concerns in an area of rapid urban growth. In return for setting up a 500,000-acre conservation reserve, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the California Department of Fish and Game granted the county and cities in western Riverside County a 75-year
Malnutrition results from a complex set of factors and not one simple cause. The UNICEF conceptual
model of causes of malnutrition (page 16) provides a useful framework for the discussion of the
causes of malnutrition in Somalia. The volatile political situation and civil unrest have led to a
chronic and continuing humanitarian crisis that is at the root of the high prevalence of malnutrition
in Somalia. Somalia is also prone to drought and floods.
This version includes amendments resulting from IFRSs issued up to 31 December 2008. IFRIC 5 Rights to Interests arising from Decommissioning, Restoration and Environmental Rehabilitation Funds was developed by the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee and issued by the International Accounting Standards Board in December 2004.
Judicious treatment of environmental questions and challenges requires an integrated, crossdisciplinary
approach. Whether working at a local, national, regional, or global scale, the knowledge
and expertise resident in a variety of subject areas comes to bear on all questions of
sustainable development. Soil scientists now collaborate with colleagues in many Þelds, and a
basic working knowledge