This book describes the state-of-the-art advancement in the field of organic electroluminescence contributed by many researchers with internationally established expertise in the field. It includes original contributions on the synthesis of suitable organic materials, fabrication of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) and organic white light emitting devices (WOLEDs), characterization of these devices and some designs for optimal performance.
The field of color imaging deals with the capture, processing, communication,
and reproduction of color images. The origins of color imaging can be
traced back to prehistoric times when cave dwellers created the first color
drawings depicting events in their lives, using primitive materials and techniques
available to them. Since then, color images have played an important
role in history, and color imaging has advanced hand in hand with progress
in science and technology. In the past 10 to 15 years, this field, like many
others, has been significantly transformed by the digital revolution.
Optoelectronics - Materials and Techniques is the first part of an edited anthology on
the multifaceted areas of optoelectronics contributed by a selected group of authors
including promising novices to experts in the field, where are discussed related
materials and techniques. Photonics and optoelectronics are making an impact
multiple times the semiconductor revolution made on the quality of our life.
Elements of a Robot System In recent years, the so-called industrial robot has become a familiar feature of manufacturing plants. This class of machines is, of course, only a part of a much more diverse family of devices characterized by large numbers of degrees of freedom and intelligent controllers.
Making devices small has long had engineering, scientific, and aesthetic motivations.
For example, John Harrison’s quest  to make a small (e.g., hand-sized)
chronometer in the 1700s for nautical navigation was motivated by the desire to
have an accurate time-keeping instrument that was insensitive to temperature,
humidity, and motion. A small chronometer could meet these objectives and allow
for multiple instruments on a ship for redundancy and error averaging. A number
of technological firsts came from this work, such as the development of the roller
Actually different types of classifiers can be set for BCI technology, from
physiological point of view BCI devices may be classified in exogenous and endogenous. the
external devices to provide some kind of stimulation to users and use them to analyze the
respond to them, an example of this class of devices based on evoked potentials or P300 pictures
(KM Spencer and E. Donchin and R. Wijesinghe, 2000).
Since the first edition of this handbook, semiconductor technology has gone through a continued
evolution of new devices and materials like never before. Wafer sizes continue to grow with most
of the new fabs equipped for 12-inch wafers. The changes are triggered by many considerations:
continued need to provide more functions at lower cost; technology features less than 1000 Å
requiring new processes, and exponential increase in the number of device elements.
The first edition of the
Handbook of Micro/Nanotribology
was published in the Spring of 1995. Soon after
its publication, the first-of-a-kind monograph became a reference book for the novice, as well as experts,
in the emerging field of micro/nanotribology. Since the field is evolving very rapidly, we felt that the
monograph needed a second edition.
The second edition is totally revised. The scope of the first edition has been expanded. In the first
part, Basic Studies, two new chapters on AFM Instrumentation and Tips and Surface Forces and Adhesion
have been added.
Engineering of nanophase materials and devices is of vital interest in electronics, semiconductors and optics, catalysis, ceramics and magnetism. Research associated with nanoparticles has widely spread and diffused into every field of scientific research, forming a trend of nanocrystal engineered materials.
Progress in modern science is impossible without reliable tools for characterization
of structural, physical, and chemical properties of materials and devices at
the micro-, nano-, and atomic scale levels. While structural information can be
obtained by such established techniques as scanning and transmission electron
microscopy, high-resolution examination of local electronic structure, electric potential
and chemical functionality is a much more daunting problem.
The extraordinary mechanical properties and unique electrical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs)
have stimulated extensive research activities across the world since their discovery by Sumio Iijima of the
NEC Corporation in the early 1990s. Although early research focused on growth and characterization,
these interesting properties have led to an increase in the number of investigations focused on application
development in the past 5 years.
Metal nanoparticles are certain to be the building blocks of the next generation of
electronic, optoelectronic and chemical sensing devices. The physical limits imposed
by top-down methods such as photo- and electron- beam lithography dictate
that the synthesis and assembly of functional nanoscale materials will become
the province of chemists.
Increased miniaturization of the integrated chip has largely been responsible
for the rapid advances in semiconductor device performance, driving the
industry’s growth over the past decade(s). Soon the minimum feature size
in a typical integrated circuit device will be well below 100 nm. At these
dimensions, interlayers with extremely low dielectric constants (k) are
imperative to reduce the cross-talk between adjacent lines and also enhance
device speed. State-of-the-art non-porous, silicon-based low-k dielectric
materials have k values on the order of 2.7....
Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes about a decade and a half ago by Sumio Iijima, the scientiﬁc community involved in various aspects of research related to carbon nanotubes and related technologies has observed a steady progress of the science, as is typical for any new and novel material.
Cd1-xMnxS nanoparticles (NPs) with size quantum confinement belong to the diluted
magnetic semiconductor (DMS) quantum dot (QD) class of materials that has been widely
studied in the last few years. The study of quasi-zero-dimensional Diluted Magnetic
Semiconductors (DMS), such as Cd1-xMnxS Quantum Dots (QDs), is strongly motivated due
to the localization of magnetic ions in the same places as the free-like electron and hole
carriers occurring in these nanomaterials [1,2].
Since then Dr. Hans Berger discovered the electrical properties of the brain, it was considered
ability to communicate outside personswith device only through the use of the brain
wave (Vidal, 1973).
Brain computer interface technology is aimed at communicating with users outside
computer equipment through electroencephalographic signals as the command source
(Wolpaw, JR, et al, 2000), (Birbaumer, N, et al, 2000).
This book provides an overview of the synthesis and characterization of nanocrystals.
Nanocrystals, owing to their unique behavior with reduction in size, have been a
significant part of the novel materials developed for applications such as biosensors,
optics, catalysts to semiconductor devices. Over the years, various synthesis methods
are discovered to develop nanostructures with tunable properties such as optical,
electronic magnetic and mechanical properties. The chapters in this book cover a
broad range of properties of nanocrystals synthesized for various applications....
The study of the workshops in Jepara involved an initial extensive survey so as to locate all the
workshops. Then we designed a spatial grid to prepare the following intensive survey. It consisted
of sampling these workshops, creating a detailed database on the structure of the wood industry
in Jepara, and subsequently analysing it (Roda and Cadène 2005). The fieldwork was conduced
by a team of 12 surveyors4
and 2 field coordinators5
. They were equipped with motorbikes, global
positioning system (GPS) devices, questionnaires, and computers.
If we are to realize the everyday benefits promised by pervasive computing and context-
aware applications, we must first develop the foundation systems that will make those
applications easy to develop, to deploy, and to maintain. We must develop systems that
provide the necessary contextual information with accuracy, robustness, and scalability. We
must also address the technical challenges of engineering these systems for use by humans
and mobile devices in indoor environments.
An alternative conception of consumer choice has recently gained the attention of
economists, which allows for two closely related departures from the standard model.
First, consumers may have dynamically inconsistent preferences. Second, as a rational
response to this dynamic inconsistency, the consumer may use external commitment
devices or personal rules in an attempt to limit overspending. We use data from a large,
representative sample of households in the UK to test the relevance of these twin
predictions in the field.