Device characterization

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  • This book describes the state-of-the-art advancement in the field of organic electroluminescence contributed by many researchers with internationally established expertise in the field. It includes original contributions on the synthesis of suitable organic materials, fabrication of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) and organic white light emitting devices (WOLEDs), characterization of these devices and some designs for optimal performance.

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  • The field of color imaging deals with the capture, processing, communication, and reproduction of color images. The origins of color imaging can be traced back to prehistoric times when cave dwellers created the first color drawings depicting events in their lives, using primitive materials and techniques available to them. Since then, color images have played an important role in history, and color imaging has advanced hand in hand with progress in science and technology. In the past 10 to 15 years, this field, like many others, has been significantly transformed by the digital revolution.

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  • Optoelectronics - Materials and Techniques is the first part of an edited anthology on the multifaceted areas of optoelectronics contributed by a selected group of authors including promising novices to experts in the field, where are discussed related materials and techniques. Photonics and optoelectronics are making an impact multiple times the semiconductor revolution made on the quality of our life.

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  • Elements of a Robot System In recent years, the so-called industrial robot has become a familiar feature of manufacturing plants. This class of machines is, of course, only a part of a much more diverse family of devices characterized by large numbers of degrees of freedom and intelligent controllers.

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  • Making devices small has long had engineering, scientific, and aesthetic motivations. For example, John Harrison’s quest [1] to make a small (e.g., hand-sized) chronometer in the 1700s for nautical navigation was motivated by the desire to have an accurate time-keeping instrument that was insensitive to temperature, humidity, and motion. A small chronometer could meet these objectives and allow for multiple instruments on a ship for redundancy and error averaging. A number of technological firsts came from this work, such as the development of the roller bearing.

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  • Actually different types of classifiers can be set for BCI technology, from physiological point of view BCI devices may be classified in exogenous and endogenous. the external devices to provide some kind of stimulation to users and use them to analyze the respond to them, an example of this class of devices based on evoked potentials or P300 pictures (KM Spencer and E. Donchin and R. Wijesinghe, 2000).

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  • Since the first edition of this handbook, semiconductor technology has gone through a continued evolution of new devices and materials like never before. Wafer sizes continue to grow with most of the new fabs equipped for 12-inch wafers. The changes are triggered by many considerations: continued need to provide more functions at lower cost; technology features less than 1000 Å requiring new processes, and exponential increase in the number of device elements.

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  • The first edition of the Handbook of Micro/Nanotribology was published in the Spring of 1995. Soon after its publication, the first-of-a-kind monograph became a reference book for the novice, as well as experts, in the emerging field of micro/nanotribology. Since the field is evolving very rapidly, we felt that the monograph needed a second edition. The second edition is totally revised. The scope of the first edition has been expanded. In the first part, Basic Studies, two new chapters on AFM Instrumentation and Tips and Surface Forces and Adhesion have been added.

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  • Engineering of nanophase materials and devices is of vital interest in electronics, semiconductors and optics, catalysis, ceramics and magnetism. Research associated with nanoparticles has widely spread and diffused into every field of scientific research, forming a trend of nanocrystal engineered materials.

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  • Progress in modern science is impossible without reliable tools for characterization of structural, physical, and chemical properties of materials and devices at the micro-, nano-, and atomic scale levels. While structural information can be obtained by such established techniques as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution examination of local electronic structure, electric potential and chemical functionality is a much more daunting problem.

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  • The extraordinary mechanical properties and unique electrical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have stimulated extensive research activities across the world since their discovery by Sumio Iijima of the NEC Corporation in the early 1990s. Although early research focused on growth and characterization, these interesting properties have led to an increase in the number of investigations focused on application development in the past 5 years.

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  • Metal nanoparticles are certain to be the building blocks of the next generation of electronic, optoelectronic and chemical sensing devices. The physical limits imposed by top-down methods such as photo- and electron- beam lithography dictate that the synthesis and assembly of functional nanoscale materials will become the province of chemists.

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  • Increased miniaturization of the integrated chip has largely been responsible for the rapid advances in semiconductor device performance, driving the industry’s growth over the past decade(s). Soon the minimum feature size in a typical integrated circuit device will be well below 100 nm. At these dimensions, interlayers with extremely low dielectric constants (k) are imperative to reduce the cross-talk between adjacent lines and also enhance device speed. State-of-the-art non-porous, silicon-based low-k dielectric materials have k values on the order of 2.7....

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  • Cd1-xMnxS nanoparticles (NPs) with size quantum confinement belong to the diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) quantum dot (QD) class of materials that has been widely studied in the last few years. The study of quasi-zero-dimensional Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS), such as Cd1-xMnxS Quantum Dots (QDs), is strongly motivated due to the localization of magnetic ions in the same places as the free-like electron and hole carriers occurring in these nanomaterials [1,2].

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  • Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes about a decade and a half ago by Sumio Iijima, the scientific community involved in various aspects of research related to carbon nanotubes and related technologies has observed a steady progress of the science, as is typical for any new and novel material.

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  • Since then Dr. Hans Berger discovered the electrical properties of the brain, it was considered ability to communicate outside personswith device only through the use of the brain wave (Vidal, 1973). Brain computer interface technology is aimed at communicating with users outside computer equipment through electroencephalographic signals as the command source (Wolpaw, JR, et al, 2000), (Birbaumer, N, et al, 2000).

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  • This book provides an overview of the synthesis and characterization of nanocrystals. Nanocrystals, owing to their unique behavior with reduction in size, have been a significant part of the novel materials developed for applications such as biosensors, optics, catalysts to semiconductor devices. Over the years, various synthesis methods are discovered to develop nanostructures with tunable properties such as optical, electronic magnetic and mechanical properties. The chapters in this book cover a broad range of properties of nanocrystals synthesized for various applications....

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  • The study of the workshops in Jepara involved an initial extensive survey so as to locate all the workshops. Then we designed a spatial grid to prepare the following intensive survey. It consisted of sampling these workshops, creating a detailed database on the structure of the wood industry in Jepara, and subsequently analysing it (Roda and Cadène 2005). The fieldwork was conduced by a team of 12 surveyors4 and 2 field coordinators5 . They were equipped with motorbikes, global positioning system (GPS) devices, questionnaires, and computers.

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  • If we are to realize the everyday benefits promised by pervasive computing and context- aware applications, we must first develop the foundation systems that will make those applications easy to develop, to deploy, and to maintain. We must develop systems that provide the necessary contextual information with accuracy, robustness, and scalability. We must also address the technical challenges of engineering these systems for use by humans and mobile devices in indoor environments.

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  • An alternative conception of consumer choice has recently gained the attention of economists, which allows for two closely related departures from the standard model. First, consumers may have dynamically inconsistent preferences. Second, as a rational response to this dynamic inconsistency, the consumer may use external commitment devices or personal rules in an attempt to limit overspending. We use data from a large, representative sample of households in the UK to test the relevance of these twin predictions in the field.

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