Diagnosis and staging

Xem 1-20 trên 133 kết quả Diagnosis and staging
  • Regulation of female reproductive system consists of very complex interactions between the hypothalamus, neurohypophysis and ovaries. Beginning from the embryologic stage, female reproductive system is regulated by the brain. Ovarian hormone production is supressed by the hypothalamo-hypophyseal control mechanism till the end of the childhood period when the puberty begins. During puberty, menstrual cyclicity and timely ovulation, which are the result of the precise integration within different components of the reproductive system, are achieved.

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  • The children protection began in 12th and 13th centuries in Aragón and Castilla after the promulgation of some laws by King Alfonso X “The Wise” of Castilla and King Pedro IV of Aragón. The first of them, in the law “Fuero Juzgo” sentenced the abortion and the infanticide. The second of them, King Pedro IV, created the figure of “Judge and Father of Orphans”, whose mission was to look after children's health, to keep them away of begging and to lead them to work. There even were centers where children received food and education. Bernardo Gordonio, in his book ...

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  • Total GHGEs from the food supply can be split by a nominal boundary of the regional distribution centre (RDC), i.e. primary commodity production and transport to the RDC (pre-RDC) and processing, transport to retail, storage, preparation and waste (post-RDC), in the ratio of 56:44 (Audsley et al. 2009). It is recognised, however, that this is only a nominal boundary as it is not always clear exactly where primary production ends and processing begins for different types of food.

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  • When an infection occurs, immune cells flock to the area and secrete large amounts of highly reactive chemicals to combat the invader. But, these inflammatory chemicals also attack normal tissue surrounding the infection and damage critical components of cells, including DNA. During chronic inflammation, DNA damage may lead to mutations or cell death and even to cancer and other diseases.

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  • Indirect standardization is more appropriate for rare outcomes than direct standardization, resulting in the calculation of rates (McMichael and Giles, 1988). A limitation of this study is that we did not have access to information on potentially important risk factors such as lifestyle. Results for all causes of deaths were significantly lower compared to the autochthon German population. Overall SMR is reduced for the Aussiedler, therefore, they seem to be healthier or more resistant than the Germans and therefore they are much healthier than populations of countries from the FSU....

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  • Though still small – a market for green investments is also starting to grow. Alongside more developed equity products (such as green indices comprising of listed companies operating in the green space), fixed income instruments are also being launched – notably green bonds, for which the OECD estimates that the market is now around USD 16 billion. Alongside the World Bank‟s USD 2.3 billion issuance, other development banks have become involved (EIB, ADB) and the US government has introduced interesting initiatives.

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  • Even in work that lies so near the fortuities of animate nature as dairying, stock−breeding, and the improvement of crop plants, a determinate, reasoned routine replaces the rule of thumb. By mechanical control of his materials the dairyman, e.g., selectively determines the rate and kind of the biological processes that change his raw material into finished product.

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  • Even when schools are free, poor children may be forced to leave in order to work. Children may need to provide extra house- hold income or care for younger siblings so that both parents can work outside the home. Conditional cash transfers have been used as effective incentives for parents to enrol their children in school in Latin America. Families receive money on the condition that their children attend school and go to health-care appointments (see Box 7, page 25). In addition, grants can go directly to teachers and to schools.

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  • An option of longstanding interest is prevention—interventions that prevent or delay the occurrence of the very diseases that drive these costs. There are three kinds of prevention. Primary prevention can be accomplished by modifying unhealthy behaviors (e.g., smoking, physical inactivity), which cause many diseases and account for 38% of all deaths in the United States, 6 administering immunizations to prevent infectious diseases, and reducing exposure to harmful environmental factors.

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  • We find a positive and significant relationship between the ROE of the appointing firm and the relative performance of the executive director‟s ROE. In terms of magnitude, a two standard deviations increase in the relative ROE of the company where director holds an executive position increases ROE of the appointing company by 0.035. This is a very substantial increase given that the average (median) ROE is 0.10 (0.12). We interpret this result as evidence that the appointing firm gains some of the director‟s human capital in the form of better quality...

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  • Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have the capacity to detect low-risk genetic susceptibility regions associated with prostate cancer with an increased risk varying between 14-52 % (table 3) (Schumacher et al. 2011, Witte 2009). Several recent studies incorporating single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analyses in models predicting the diagnosis of prostate cancer upon biopsy have been published (Wiklund 2010, Aly et al. 2011, Witte 2009).

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  • Another scheme, prime bank notes are “fictitious and fraudulent instruments -- not backed or endorsed by any legitimate financial institution.” In other words, prime bank notes do not exist. 4 These “investments” are often marketed using an assortment of vague terms such as debentures, letters of credit, commercial paper, prime notes, bills of exchange; bank secured trading programs or loan roll programs. The sales pitch typically includes promises of unrealistic rates of return (e.g.

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  • We all know that keeping a positive attitude can affect our mental and physical health. So main- taining a certain amount of calm and acceptance about your circumstances can set the tone for your family interactions. If the parent with PD is con- stantly complaining or embarrassed, kids will pick up on that and act the same way. Of course, that’s not to say that you have to keep everyone’s spirits up all the time. You need to experience your own emotions and give them validation. The key is to not get caught up in your emotions and let them drag you down.

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  • Most of the epidemiological studies which compared breast cancer risk of active smokers to women who were not smokers (regardless of their passive smoke exposure) have found no association of smoking and breast cancer risk. But several studies found that women who smoked had a decreased breast cancer risk. It is not uncommon for epidemiological studies to come to different assessments of health risk, especially when, as in these studies, the associated risk is not large.

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  • The major theme of this study component involves carrying out projections of demand for poultry feeds and its implications for wheat and maize production. For this purpose, the projection of poultry and poultry products has to be carried out first. Two approaches can be employed to estimate the medium and long- term demand for use of grain as poultry feeds. One approach involves projecting demand derived from the consumption of poultry products (meat and eggs). The approach may be called "Demand Approach" 2 .

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  • Specific micronutrient deficiencies may affect maternal and foetal health. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy may cause foetal brain damage and mental retardation in infants. Vitamin A deficiency increases the risk in pregnant women of infection and anaemia, may cause blindness during pregnancy and early lactation, and has been associated to an elevated risk of HIV mother-to-child transmission. Folate deficiency may cause severe foetal neural tube defects like anencephaly and spina bifida.

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  • Storage of putative stem/progenitor cells is also an attractive research target in tissue engineering. Collection of cells for tissue engineering is less invasive than conventional tissue or organ transplantation. However, repetitive collection of cells can stress patients. If the stem/progenitor cells could be stored, it is possible that they could be repeatedly used for future therapy, reducing the burden and the cost to patients. The concept of banking stem/progenitor cells in storage is not new. Stem/progenitor cell populations decrease in size with age (D'Ippolito et al.

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  • Edwards et al (2006) report indoor air quality monitoring in nearly 400 households in the three provinces of Hubei, Shaanxi, and Zhejiang in 2002-2003. Great care was taken to select homes that reflect the diversity of fuels and stove technology and stove performance in China. PM4 concentrations in 75 percent of kitchens and 73 percent of living rooms during the winter - and 48 percent of kitchens and 46 percent of living rooms during the summer - exceeded the national indoor air quality PM10 standard of 150 ug/m3 for a 24 hour average. If PM10...

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  • In a seminal study in New Haven, CT, United States, data from a comprehensive annual health and welfare study of a representative sample of 2812 older people were merged with the database of the local agency concerned with adult abuse for each year over a 9-year period (50). Information for the health survey was recorded by nurses, who saw the older people at a hospital for the first year’s data collection and every third year after that. In the intervening years, data were updated by telephone.

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  • One motivation that was lacking in the United States was the need to help finance the national government. 7 In fact, the absence of a sizable outstanding national debt posed a problem in designing a system that would not compete with commercial bank lending activities. Sensitivity was high, as well, to the possibility that a nationwide postal bank might drain funds from local to big-city financial markets.

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