Our study shows that, in spite of a gradual decrease, the
incidence rates of pulmonary tuberculosis in immigrants
remain high even a decade after immigration. The persistent
high incidence rates are consistent with results of previous
studies (2–5). Our study combines data on all
immigrant patients in whom tuberculosis was detected and
all legal immigrants present in a 5-year period in a low
incidence country, enabling detailed analysis with a long
We did not find a steep decline in incidence rates after
The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis can be made by the detection of acid fast bacilli by direct microscopy, using carbol fuchsin stain and/or fluorochrome stain. Microscopy is a rapid method but lacks sufficient sensitivity and does not distinguish between different species of mycobacteria. The sensitivity of microscopy is often not more than 25-40% as compared to culture, but under ideal conditions, it is possible to achieve a rate of 60-70%.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học 'Respiratory Research cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: "The value of ischemia-modified albumin compared with d-dimer in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism...
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài:
Difficulties in establishing a timely diagnosis of pulmonary artery sarcoma misdiagnosed as chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary disease: a case report
Outline of Tuberculosis - An update for Primary care physicians: Epidemiology of tuberculosis; diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI); diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, including new diagnostics; Overview of tuberculosis treatment.
The purpose of these guidelines is to provide the practicing physician with a rational and
manageable approach to the diagnosis, treatment and control of pulmonary tuberculosis in the Philippines.
By their very nature, these guidelines cannot encompass all eventualities. Care has been taken to confirm
the accuracy of the information presented and to describe generally accepted practices.
In the light of changes to health and safety law, and the continuing development of
best practice by the event industry, the guide has been reviewed and revised. The
advice in this publication has been tried and tested and lays down a firm foundation
on which to organise health and safety at music events. Many of the chapters can
be applied to other types of event which, although not necessarily having a musical
theme, share some of the common characteristics of music events.
This publication will enable event organisers, local authorities, the emergency
To improve the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), more rapid diagnostic techniques such as antibody
detection based on immunochromatographic methods were developed. The objective of this study was to
evaluate the performance of the SD Rapid TB kit for the diagnosis of active TB with serums from patients and close
contact controls in Antananarivo, Madagascar.
Findings: We conducted a population-based case-control study. The sera of 60 confirmed TB patients and 60
healthy contacts paired for sex and age were tested.
To capture several features of housing booms, we look at three variables: real credit to the private
sector, residential investment and real house prices. Apart from interest rates, all variables are in
logs. The data is taken from the OECD Economic Outlook, the IMF International Financial
Statistics (IFS), and the BIS Macro database. The variables and data sources are listed in the
appendix. We estimate the model on quarterly data over the period of the Great Moderation from
1984 Q1 to 2007 Q2 with two lags.
The Apheis programme seeks to meet the information needs of a wide range of individuals and
organizations concerned with the impact of air pollution on health in Europe; and most importantly the
needs of those individuals who influence and set policy in this area on the European, national, regional
and local levels.
Like other providers of scientific information, however, Apheis had reason to believe that its many
audiences, and this one in particular, were making little use of the scientific reports it produces.
An individual’s benefit payment is reduced dollar for dollar by the amount of their “countable
income”—income less all applicable exclusions—in a given month. Income in the SSI program
includes “earned income” such as wages and net earnings from self-employment; and “unearned
income” such as Social Security benefits, unemployment compensation, deemed income from a
spouse or parent, and the value of in-kind support and maintenance such as food and shelter.
Different exclusion rules apply for different types of income. ...
· Disaggregated regional or local data about the environment, sometimes linked to a
geographic information system. Questions often arise about the scale of environmental
data; do they pertain to a village, a province, a watershed, or the whole country? Because
the SNA is national, and most countries maintain their economic data at the national
(rather than the regional or local) level, environmental accounts are primarily national
accounts. For example, they might tell us how much energy was consumed nationwide,
not how much was consumed in each village or province.
Socio-Ecological Landscape Units (SELU) are
produced in turn from LCFU and other geographical
dimensions such as relief, belonging to a river basin,
or proximity to the sea. LCFU are agglomerated with
a methodology which maps dominant land‑cover
types. Large forests or agricultural areas will
constitute a SELU in their own right while smaller
units will be part of a larger zone characterised by
its dominant land cover. The Dominant Land Cover
Types are then classified according to river basins
and relief classes (e.g. coastal, lowland, highland,
The proposed new local audit regime would continue to provide Parliament with the assurances it needs on public spending. The National Audit Office would prepare the Codes of audit practice, which prescribe the way in which auditors are to carry out their functions, and which would continue to be approved by Parliament, and associated guidance. The National Audit Office would also continue to audit Government departments providing funding to local public bodies and will continue to receive Whole of Government Accounts returns.
The goal of this document is to illustrate the importance of the IS audit in the security process and
to explain in detail the tasks associated with the IS audit. On the one hand, the guide illustrates how
an organisation can establish the IS audit in the organisation and which activities need to be carried
out by the organisation in conjunction with the IS audit, for example evaluations of IS audit reports
or the planning and co-ordination of the IS audits.
During the past two decades, China’s GDP has increased by 6.3 times. This achievement,
however, has given rise to problems of net energy imports, environmental pollution and
ecological destruction at home, cross-border pollution, and mounting carbon dioxide (CO2)
emissions. Looking at the future, the Chinese government set up a target of quadrupling the size
of its GDP in 2000 by the year 2020.
Particle samples are collected on filters that are then weighed. Particle concentrations
are reported in terms of micrograms of particles per cubic meter (µg/m3
) of collected air.
Originally, the particle samples were relatively indiscriminate with respect to particle size
and often contained very large particles. These large particles contributed a great deal
to the weighed particle mass, but might not have been very important with respect to
lung health. This is because most of the particles were too large to penetrate through
the nasal and head airways to reach the lung.
Perifollicular swelling and redness are desired clinical endpoints. They indicate that the patient
has been treated with an appropriate fluence. The sunburned feeling and swelling usually last
one to three hours. Applying ice will give relief and reduce the swelling duration. A topical
cortisone cream can also be used. Redness can last for a few days but can by easily covered by
applying makeup. If there are signs of epidermal damage, the patient should use an antibiotic
ointment or call if there are problems. Patients should avoid sun exposure....
Test, you may work only on the section the test
center supervisor designates and only for the time
allowed. You may not go back to an earlier section of
the test after the supervisor announces, “Please stop
work” for that section. The supervisor is authorized to
dismiss you from the center for doing so. All answers
must be recorded on your answer sheet. Answers
recorded in your test booklet will not be counted.
Given the time constraints, you should avoid waiting
until the last five minutes of a test administration to
record answers on your answer sheet.
An infectious case of pulmonary tuberculosis
is diagnosed by demonstrating tubercle bacilli in
sputum. The laboratory methods available for this
purpose are sputum microscopy, isolation of
tubercle bacilli in culture followed by
identification of the bacilli and animal
pathogenicity tests. Evidence based on all the
three methods establishes bacteriological
diagnosis beyond any doubt, but even
economically advanced countries may not
consider such an elaborate procedure essential for