Diagnostic considerations

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  • Infectious diseases continue to represent a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in the critical care unit. Infectious diseases maintain their preeminence in the critical care unit setting because of their frequency and importance in the critical unit patient population. Since the first edition of Infectious Diseases in Critical Care Medicine, there have been newly described infectious diseases to be considered in differential diagnosis, and new antimicrobial agents have been added to the therapeutic armamentarium.

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  • The book "Intraepithelial neoplasia" is till date the most comprehensive book dedicated entirely to preinvasive lesions of the human body. Created and published with an aim of helping clinicians to not only diagnose but also understand the etiopathogenesis of the precursor lesions, the book also attempts to identify its molecular and genetic mechanisms. All of the chapters contain a considerable amount of new information, with an updated bibliographical list as well as the latest WHO classification of intraepithelial lesions that has been included wherever needed.

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  • The veterinary sector has witnessed considerable change in recent years, and this has had a significant impact on the wider veterinary business landscape. Most noteworthy, perhaps, has been the change at the global level in the focus of animal welfare, with a growth in small/companion animal care and a reduction in large animal work (Lowe, 2009). This has resulted in increased competition amongst veterinary practices and the recognition that veterinary services need to be appropriately marketed.

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  • Although it has been shown that frozen storage is feasible for some of the tissue-engineered products such as bone (Kofron et al., 2003), it is more difficult than that for isolated cells and requires special considerations. Water transport processes may cause difficulties for tissue-scale freezing. While cells at the surface layer would respond to freeze-induced osmotic changes much like cells in suspension, interior cells would dehydrate as a response to the increased intracellular tonicity in the dehydrate surface layers.

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  • Concerns about rising health care costs and affordability of health care for families persist despite the enactment of comprehensive health reform legislation in March 2010 (the Affordable Care Act, or ACA). 1 The ACA changed the health care landscape considerably by providing significant financial assistance to help people with low and moderate incomes afford coverage and associated cost sharing.

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  • Making models in the traditional way demands considerable manual skill and dexterity, for example cutting wood parts with a razor knife. The advent and adoption of rapid prototyping and manufacturing (RPM) machinery has made it possible for ordinary designers, students, and even children, to produce physical artifacts using computational means. Although most RPM hardware is as simple to use as a printer, the software tools that designers use to produce representations for output require a great deal of expertise.

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  • Regardless of the process used to reach these decisions in a particular SAI, the considerations that should underlie them remain the same. Thus, whether a process is centralised or decentralised a similar approach is necessary, with a similar consideration of all the relevant factors throughout the SAI. These should be fully recorded and documented, particularly the necessary discussions and decisions on audit risk, materiality and sensitivity, whatever management process is consistently applied.

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  • The microbiology laboratory must be an ally in the diagnostic endeavor. Astute laboratory personnel will suggest optimal culture and transport conditions or alternative tests to facilitate diagnosis. If informed about specific potential pathogens, an alert laboratory staff will allow sufficient time for these organisms to become evident in culture, even when the organisms are present in small numbers or are slow-growing.

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  • Suicide is the third leading cause of death among adolescents, exceeded S only by homicide and accidents (Minifio, Arias, Kochanek, Murphy, & Smith, 2002). Despite a decrease in the rate of completed suicides from 1994 to 2000, the suicide rate for youths is still considerably higher (10.4 per 100,000 in 2000 for 15- to 24year-olds; Minifio et al., 2002) than it was several decades ago (4.5 per 100,000 for 15- to 24year-olds in 1950; National Center for Health Statistics, 2000).

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  • The speculum should be carefully positioned so the entire cervix is seen. If excess mucus or other secretions obscure the cervix, they should be gently removed using a proctoswab without disturbing the epithelium. Small amounts of blood will not interfere with cytologic evaluation, but large amounts, as occurs during menses, preclude cytologic interpretation by conventional Pap smear. This is considerably less of a problem when liquid based cytology is used.

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  • There are significant advantages to Trichet bonds over other discussed solutions to the sovereign debt problem. One such proposed solution is the issuance of “Euro Bonds” guaranteed by the Eurozone countries or the EU itself for the purpose of redeeming sovereign bonds by market purchases, or by lending the proceeds to the countries involved for them to acquire their debt. Apart from the considerable political obstacles to such a program, the undertaking actually makes it less likely that existing self-interested debt-holders will sell in the market.

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  • The purpose of this manual is to provide the definitive textbook for equine veterinary nurses. It will also be useful to all those involved in the care and management of the sick horse. There are a multitude of excellent books available on managing the well horse. For this reason, the basics of equine management such as routine bandaging techniques are not included here, since they are well explained elsewhere. Instead the aim of this book is to provide new information on the care and consideration, as well as the art and science involved in looking after any sick horse or pony....

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  • Approximately 80% of a Project Manager’s time is spent communicating. Think about it – as a Project Manager you are spending most of your time measuring and reporting on the performance of the project, composing and reading emails, conducting meetings, writing the project plan, meeting with team members, overseeing work being performed, meeting with clients over lunch and many more activities related to your projects. You should give considerable thought to how you want to manage communications on this project.

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  • We find strong evidence that having access to a car is particularly important for black and Latino workers. We find a difference in employment rates between car-owners and non car-owners that is considerably larger among black workers than among white workers. Moreover, the car- employment effect for Latino workers is significantly greater than the comparable effect for non- Latino white workers yet significantly smaller than the effect for black workers.

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  • The Congressional Budget Office consistently concludes that infrastructure and other state spending provide considerable boosts to the economy, while income tax changes for high- income households have minimal impact on short-term economic activity. Tax cuts for affluent households result in small increases in spending, and tax hikes result in only small decreases. Low- and middle-income households, on the other hand, have little savings, and reductions in their after-tax income result in equivalent reductions in spending.

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  • The analysis shows that public transportation investment can have significant impacts on the economy, and thus represent an important public policy consideration. However, economic impacts should not be equated with the value of total societal benefits associated with public transportation investment. Care should also be taken to recognize the short-term effect of public transportation spending as well as the longer-term benefits of sustained transportation investment on travel times, costs and economic productivity.

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  • The main method of cognition of the performance of biological systems is their mathematical modeling. The essence of this method should reflect the principle of optimization in biology[9]. Any biosystem cannot function if its energy consumption is inadequately high. The same is applicable to the blood circulatory system. Its main function is to transport blood throughout the body in order to maintain the proper gaseous exchange, deliver important substances to viscera and tissues in living body and remove decay products.

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  • Answering the question of why Brazil has relatively high real interest rates cannot be done in isolation by focusing exclusively on Brazilian data. Doing so would lead us to conclude that Brazilian real interest rates are actually very low at the moment. We are interested not only in why interest rates have declined but why, at any point in time, they were considerably higher than in other countries and what factors may help Brazil converge to the level of other emerging markets. To this end, the analysis in this paper is based on a panel data set of 15 emerging...

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  • There has been considerable debate in Canada on the relative contributions of mercury from natural sources versus releases to the environment from human activity. One of the challenges with this debate is the lack of accurate information on mercury emissions, past and present. Scientists have ana- lyzed sediment cores and determined that the levels of mercury in the environment today are more than double what they were in pre-industrial times. They have also measured mercury in the atmos- phere and found that it continues to increase globally at more than one per cent per year.

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  • The newer meta-analyses did not add significantly to the views expressed in the previous Type 2 diabetes guideline. The findings of the ROSSO study44 and the data from the large Kaiser Permanente cohorts43 added considerable confidence to the view that SMBG was an integral part of effective patient education packages and enabled the effective use of many other therapies and lifestyle interventions. The view in the previous guideline that self-monitoring of plasma glucose is not a stand-alone intervention was endorsed....

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