The validity of a specific method should be demonstrated in laboratory experiments using
samples or standards that are similar to unknown samples analyzed routinely. The
preparation and execution should follow a validation protocol, preferably written in a stepby-
step instruction format. This proposed procedure assumes that the instrument has been
selected and the method has been developed.
Over the past few decades the field of neurology has seen spectacular developments in diagnostic techniques, most vividly
exemplified by modern neuroimaging and molecular genetics. Although not always at the same speed this evolution has
gone hand in hand with an enlarging armentarium of effective therapies to treat neurological disease.
Electronic Medical Records now act as main repositories for patient data. As we con-
tinue to explore the intricate relationship between phenotype and genotype, these
records become a vital source for monitoring patients’ progression of disease. The pre-
sence of a given variation, as it relates to the appearance or absence of disease over
time, can be mapped as encounters are recorded by clinicians. Every result, encounter,
event, or diagnosis is recorded as a data item and includes a date.
We now turn to presenting results. After examining the demographic characteristics of Cambodian
elders, we explore a number of social, economic and health issues in that order. When presenting the
results in tabular form, we limit examination of differentials to gender, location (Phnom Penh versus the
remainder of the provinces) and age (60-69 versus 70+). Each of these dimensions are typically of
interest for both academics and policy-makers.
Dissociative amnesia could be differentiated according to the degree and timeframe of
impairment (global versus selective, anterograde versus retrograde) of autobiographical-
episodic memory and the co-existence of deficits in autobiographical-semantic memory and
general semantic knowledge. The most frequent types of dissociative amnesias are
retrograde, a fact that is in fact captured by the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV-TR (2000). The
latter distinguishes between localized amnesia, selective amnesia, generalized amnesia,
continuous amnesia and systematized amnesia. ...
This book began as a collection of articles on neuropsychiatric disease, but with a clear
focus on Schizophrenia, which is a poorly understood but very disabling group of
brain disorders. We now recognize schizophrenia as a disorder of the brain, but
despite advances in treatment options we are still a long way from having effective
treatments, particularly for cognitive symptoms, and lack effective interventions and
ways to prevent this disease.
The pioneering cardiac surgeon Alain Carpentier, MD, PhD, developed a functional
classification to reflect the underlying pathological changes that contributed to MR
(Carpentier A. 1983) (Figure 4). As described in this classification, type I MR is characterized
as normal leaflet motion but with annular dilatation or leaflet perforation; type II lesions are
related to leaflet prolapse and may be caused by myxomatous disease, such as chord
rupture or elongation, or by papillary muscle rupture or elongation; and type III lesions are
caused by restricted leaflet motion.
On 1 July 2007 a Polish-Macedonian agreement on social security entered into force. It
replaced an agreement between the Government of the Polish People’s Republic and the Gove-
rnment of the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia of 1958.
The agreement between the Republic of Poland and the United States of America signed in
Warsaw on 2 April 2008 and the administrative arrangement on its application, signed in Warsaw
on 2 April 2008, entered into force on 1 March 2009.
Members of the Association of Private
Client Investment Managers and
Stockbrokers (APCIMS), who include
wealth management and broking firms,
provide a key role in facilitating
investment in and providing liquidity
for quoted companies, including Small
and Mid-Caps, on behalf of private
According to the compeer 2009 uK Wealth
Management industry report, at the end of 2008
the private client wealth management industry
had £335 billion of investment assets under
On June 5–7, 2005, sixty leaders from around the world gathered at Wye
River, Maryland for a path breaking meeting entitled “Innovations in Supporting
Local Health Systems for Global Women’s Health: A Leader’s Symposium.” This diverse
group of participants, ranging from cabinet ministers to advocates, academics
to local practitioners, shared a common goal: to shine a bright spotlight on
urgent challenges in global women’s health and the critical need to pioneer
innovations in strengthening local health systems to address those challenges.
Nevertheless, business tourism provide much higher revenue for
enterprises as consumers are willing to pay more for their inflexible schedules and also destinations
can increase their multiplier effects as some particular forms of business tourism use a much greater
spectrum of local services than leisure tourism. Convenient transportation connections with major
cities around the world, smooth arrangements at the destination and adequate provision of business
related amenities are therefore very important.
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or services does not constitute TI’s approval, license, warranty or endorsement thereof. ...
BNDES has traditionally had an important role in the Brazilian financial system, but its size
has doubled in the post-Lehman period. BNDES has typically been a major source of long-
term financing for industry and infrastructure. During the crisis, it played an important
counter-cyclical role as private bank credit fell off sharply in 2009 during the height of the
Lehman related global tensions.
This major drawback led to the development of a more consistent approach that
modelled inefficiency effects as an explicit function of certain factors specific to the
firm, and all the parameters are estimated in one step using maximum likelihood procedure.
Authors in this category include Kumbhakar, Ghosh and McGuckin (1991), Reifschneider
and Stevenson (1999), Huang and Liu (1994), and Battese and Coelli (1995), who proposed
a stochastic frontier production fuction for panel data.
Although advances have undoubtedly occurred, considered reflections about the seminal
contributions of Bleuler - and indeed Kraepelin - in this centenary year, may make one
wonder whether these treatment advances are a somewhat thin veneer, rather than the step
change required. It could be argued that progress has been more due to changes in societal
values and attitudes rather than the development of effective novel interventions – either
pharmacological or psychological.
Not surprisingly, perhaps, the trend toward a predominantly female profession is not
restricted to the UK. According to statistics from the American Veterinary Medical
Association (AVMA), the number of female veterinarians in the US more than doubled
between 1991 and 2002 (Zhao, 2002). Whereas only 5% of applications to US vet schools
were from females in the late 1960s, by the end of the 1990s, over seventy percent of
applications were from young women.
This section closes with a review of the evidence for managed port-
folio performance based on the traditional measures. This discussion
touches on the issues of survivorship bias and persistence in perfor-
mance, among other topics.
Chapter 3 discusses Conditional Performance Evaluation. Here,
the idea is to measure performance accounting for the fact that the
expected returns and risks for investing may vary over time depend-
ing on the state of the economy. An example motivates the approach.
I consider a continuous-time "two-trees" pure-exchange economy with in nite horizon. There is a
single consumption good which serves as the numeraire. There are two types of investors who are
heterogeneous in endowments, beliefs, and enforcement technology. Heterogeneity in endowments
and beliefs provide incentives for trade in the nancial markets, which is driven by risk sharing
motives and sentiment, respectively.
Overall Health: Early pregnancy and childbear-
ing negatively affect the overall health of young
women and their children. In poor countries, ado-
lescent mothers are twice as likely to die from preg-
nancy- or childbirth-related causes as older moth-
ers. Data from 15 developing countries reveal that
adolescents under the age of 17 are far less likely
to receive skilled prenatal and delivery care than
women between the ages of 19 and 23 (Reynolds
et al., 2003).