Endoscopy is a fast moving field, and new techniques are constantly emerging. Gastrointestinal
endoscopy has a central role in the evaluation of gastrointestinal complaints and in the diagnosis
and management of gastrointestinal diseases. It is a very safe procedure in the general population
as demonstrated by numerous studies. Several data provide a better understanding of pathogenic
mechanisms. In recent decades, gastrointestinal endoscopy has evolved and branched out from a
visual diagnostic modality to impressive interventional capabilities.
The purpose of this book is to provide both an introduction and a state-of-the-art
review of the essential physics and signal processing principles of diagnostic ultrasound
in a single reference volume with a unified approach. This book draws together
many of the ideas from seminal papers, the author’s research, and other sources in a
single narrative and point of view. Unlike texts that present only the theory of acoustic
fundamentals, this book relates topics to each other in the context of ultrasound
imaging and practical application.
(BQ) Part 1 book "Textbook of diagnostic sonography" presents the following contents: Foundations ofsonography; introduction to physical findings, physiology and laboratory data; essentials of patient care for the sonographer; ergonomics and musculoskeletal issues in sonography,...
The concept for Cancer Management: A Multidisciplinary Approach arose nearly
10 years ago. This seventh annual edition reflects the ongoing commitment of
the authors, editors, and publishers to rapidly disseminate to oncologists the
most current information on the clinical management of cancer patients.
Each chapter in this seventh edition has been updated to keep pace with the
most current diagnostic and treatment recommendations.
This book provides a practical approach for MR imaging of the focal and diffuse liver lesions based on
the state-of-the-art MR imaging sequences, computer-generated drawings, concise figure captions, relevant
and systematic (differential) diagnostic information, recent literature references, and patient
management possibilities. MR imaging findings are correlated to ultrasound, computed tomography,
and pathology when appropriate.
Electrocardiograms (ECGs) are the graphic representation of body surface potential
differences generated by the electrical activity of the heart. Bipolar limb
leads, augmentedunipolar limb leads and precordial leads have been used routinely
for recording the ECG, which remains an essential part of the cardiac
examination, even after the advent of cardiac catheterization, angiocardiography,
echocardiography and many other sophisticated diagnostic modalities.
The inevitability of a disease sounds a clarion for its prevention, or at least its control.
Understanding its pathophysiology is essential to that process. For osteoarthritis,
preconceived notions and mythology must be transcended to allow identification of its
essentials. The first step was to establish a scientific basis for its recognition. Sorting
associated phenomenon allowed identification of those which are non-diagnostic, and
one major finding which is pathognomonic: the joint osteophyte.
Here we tried to map the dependency among aged in India. This is done across four sub
groups, Rural Male, Rural female, urban male and urban female. In India in both categories of
full and partial dependency, more than 80 percent of the women fall. In the national level
more than 70 percent of the elderly are fully dependent in both female categories in both rural
and urban areas (72.07 and 72.12) while it is just over 30 in the case of men (32.7 and 30.11).
Kerala is the toper in the Rural male section with more than 43% are...
Rapid technical advances in medical imaging, including its growing application to
drug/gene therapy and invasive/interventional procedures, have attracted significant
interest in close integration of research in life sciences, medicine, physical sciences
and engineering. This is motivated by the clinical and basic science research requirement
of obtaining more detailed physiological and pathological information about the
body for establishing localized genesis and progression of diseases.
Health care spending has exceeded economic growth in every recent decade.
Over the last four decades, the average growth in health spending has exceeded the
growth of the economy as a whole by between 1.1 and 3.0 percentage points (Figure
2). Since 1970, health care spending per capita has grown at an average annual rate
of 8.2% or 2.4 percentage points faster than nominal GDP. The persistence of this
trend suggests systematic differences between health care and other economic sectors
where growth rates are typically more in line with the overall economy. A smaller
It would be possible to create a score for each respondent from the factor analysis, and this approach
is widely considered to be good practice when scoring complex data
. However, there is also a strong
argument for giving each component of financial knowledge equal weighting, as each has benefits for
individuals, and each has been identified as important by international experts.
The mortality from ischemic heart disease has decreased in recent years. The better under‐
standing of risk factors associated with development of coronary artery disease (CAD) has
significantly contributed to this decline. Preventive measures such as aggressive therapy of
arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and lipid disorders and by campaigning against the
smoking are important components of this medical success.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) used to be regarded as a rare disease.
The increasing numbers of chronic hepatitis C virus carriers in the United
States and subsequent increased incidence of HCC seen in most large
medical centers means that it is no longer an uncommon disease for most
gastroenterologists or oncologists to encounter.
During the times when liver resection or systemic chemotherapy were
the only real therapeutic modalities available, the outcomes were generally
dismal, especially because most patients presented with advanced-stage
The field of medical imaging is advancing at a rapid pace. Imaging modalities like
x-ray radiography, x-ray computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, nuclear imaging,
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and optical imaging have been used in biology
and medicine to visualize anatomical structures as large as the lung and liver and
as small as molecules. Ultrasound is considered the most cost-effective among them.
It is used routinely in hospitals and clinics for diagnosing a variety of diseases.
Sometimes, especially during or soon after
treatment, you may not feel like eating. You may be
uncomfortable or tired. You may find that foods do not
taste as good as they used to. In addition, the side
effects of treatment (such as poor appetite, nausea,
vomiting, or mouth sores) can make it hard to eat well.
Your doctor, a registered dietitian, or another health
care provider can suggest ways to deal with these
problems. Also, the NCI booklet Eating Hints for
Cancer Patients has many useful ideas and recipes.
Page 46 tells how to get NCI booklets.
We examine the competition between a group of Internet retailers who operate in an
environment where a price search engine plays a dominant role.We show that for some
products in this environment, the easy price search makes demand tremendously pricesensitive.
Retailers, though, engage in obfuscation—practices that frustrate consumer
search or make it less damaging to firms—resulting in much less price sensitivity on
some other products. We discuss several models of obfuscation and examine its effects
on demand and markups empirically.
Many soils which have received manure or synthetic
applications over a number of years contain relatively high
levels of soil phosphorus. In soils which have not been so
fertilized, phosphorus levels may be low. Rock powders suc
as colloidal phosphate and rock phosphate can be applied
to build up the phosphorus-supplying power of a soil over
time. However, these products become available to plants
very slowly, and cannot be relied upon to supply adequate
phosphorus to a crop the year of application when soil level
of phosphorus are low.
Investing in higher-risk, illiquid, targeted investments are part of an active portfolio and
are more time-intensive than a passively managed portfolio. As such, pension funds that have
adopted formal policies limit their total investments in this category to two percent of total
assets in line with their broader strategic asset allocation policy. Pension funds seek portfolio
diversification through a strategic asset allocation policy in which the fund or its consultants
set a target percentage to each asset class—traditional and alternative investments.
The pelvic adnexae include the ovaries and fallopian tubes. In general,
ovaries increase in size throughout childhood, plateau in adulthood, then de-
crease in size in the postmenopausal period (5). Postmenopausal ovary size is
affected by the number of years since menopause and the quantity of prior
pregnancies (6); however, ovaries should not be palpable in a woman who is
two or more years beyond menopause, and such a finding should prompt fur-
ther evaluation with transvaginal ultrasound.
The organized work of those elements needs the proper functioning of each element separately (so
for teacher projects: teachers, principal of the school, school health personnel, policy makers in the
education sector; parent projects: parents of pupils of the school, community leaders etc; pupil
projects: all pupils of the school). If there is a weak teachers’ project it will be difficult to achieve
the objectives; the same if there is a weak pupils’ projects or parents’ project.