Over the past two years, certain Diaspora communities, frustrated with a perceived war against the Muslim world, have turned against their adopted homelands, targeting the government and its people by supporting terrorist attacks against Western countries through recruitment, fundraising, and training. Critical issues include
The island nation of Cape Verde has given rise to a diaspora that spans the four continents of the Atlantic Ocean. Migration has been essential to the island since the birth of its nation and connections to faraway places continue to dominate its day-to-day life. This volume makes a significant contribution to the study of international migration and transnationalism by exploring the Cape Verdean diaspora through its geographic diversity and broad thematic range.
Financial flows from migrants and their descendants are at the
heart of the relationship between migration and development. Policy
attention has focused on the largest and most visible of these flows
migrants’ remittances and, to a lesser but growing extent, the direct
investments that diaspora entrepreneurs make in businesses in their
countries of origin. The third major category of private financial resources
that originate from diasporas, capital market investments, are much less
understood and examined.
India and Israel have raised over US$35 billion by tapping into the wealth of their diaspora
communities. These diaspora bonds represent a stable and cheap source of external finance,
often when countries lost access to international capital markets. For diaspora investors, these
bonds offer the opportunity to help their country of origin while also providing an investment
opportunity. The potential for diaspora bonds is significant for many countries with large
This is the second edition of this very popular book. The drive behind the first edition was to
honour the retirement of Professor Gerald Russell and many of the chapters were written by
the diaspora of clinicians and scientists emanating from his academic and clinical leadership.
Within the decade since that edition was conceived, developed and executed there have
been changes in the balance of clinical and academic connections. A European school has
started to emerge.
This book is a study of Dutch mosque designs, objects of heated public debate. Until now, studies of diaspora mosque designs have largely consisted of normative architectural critiques that reject the ubiquitous 'domes and minarets' as hampering further Islamic-architectural evolution. The Architectural Representation of Islam: Muslim-Commissioned Mosque Design in The Netherlands represents a clear break with the architectural critical narrative, and meticulously analyzes twelve design processes for Dutch mosques.
10 Neoclassical Economics from Triumph to Crisis
10.1. The Neo-Walrasian Approach to General Economic Equilibrium
10.1.1. The conquest of the existence theorem The rise of Nazism led to a diaspora of intellectuals. All the fervour of study and debate which had enlivened Berlin and Vienna in the 1920s ended in the following decade
the large, well-organised and informed Somalia
diaspora repatriate significant remittances and,
to a very considerable extent, Somalis (especially
urban communities) subsist on these remittances.
remittances have been used to invest in a flourishing
private sector in Somalia, including private health
care services. However, these investments are not
aggregated nor under control of central authorities,
are not distributed according to need and so are not
strategically focussed, efficient or egalitarian.
the status of educational attainment in the country is
However, it must be kept in mind that HTAs are
only one of several options through which
diasporas maintain links with and help their
communities of origin. Immigrant entrepreneurs are
also ‘social actors’, who participate actively in
Various kinds of actors are involved in the processing and transfer of remittances to Asian countries,
including financial institutions, banks, exchange houses, and money transfer organizations. Exchange
houses are a principal means of sending money from the oil -producing countries in Western Asia. Some
Indian states and private banks have established agreements with these exchange houses to facilitate the
transfers of remittances. These transfers typically occur in an account-to-account manner, and are
concentrated in the United Kingdom and the United States.
The ‘Aussiedler’ are ethnic German migrants and represent a unique group of diaspora
migrants. Since 1993, the officially correct term for Aussiedler is Spätaussiedler, however for
ease of presentation we will use the term Aussiedler throughout the text.
The first Aussiedler came to Russia when Peter I (1689–1725) changed his politics towards
Europe. They were the beginning of the urban German population in Russia.
This paper analyses the root causes of rural
outmigration, focusing on its economic and social
implications. It takes as its starting point the fact
that mobility is inherent in human existence.
Livelihoods and sociocultural changes are
intimately connected with population movements.
To understand present and fast-developing trends
in human mobility, we examine the origins of
migratory movements and discern how such
transformations actually affect the natural resource
base, as well as how they shape livelihoods and
Diaspora investors tend to have different perceptions of risk than
non-diaspora investors. Given their homeland connections, diaspora
members may have better information about investment opportunities
in their countries of origin and are less sensitive to exchange-rate risks
than other investors, because they have domestic-currency obligations in
their country of origin such as support payments to family members or
running costs of domestic businesses, mortgages, or returns to domestic
share-holders. They also may have a different time horizon.
Bank accounts that are denominated in foreign currencies can offer
some advantages to diasporas. First, in offering such foreign-currency
denominated bank accounts, banks are the ones that shoulder the risk of
foreign exchange. If account holders hold currency in local denomination,
they are the ones who bear foreign currency risks. Foreign currency
deposit (FCD) accounts have often been used by domestic savers to
maintain the real value of their savings during times of macroeconomic
State of Israel Bonds. State of Israel bonds are securities issued by
the Israeli government through the Development Corporation of Israel
that are marketed to the Israeli diaspora in particular to help build the
nation’s infrastructure. Sixty years after David Ben-Gurion established
the program in 1951, State of Israel bonds have raised over $33 billion.
Today, Israel considers the issuance of these bonds as a stable source of
overseas borrowing and an important mechanism for maintaining ties
with its diaspora.
The 1938 World Cup victory in France was the zenith of sporting
achievement for Fascist Italy. As Lando Ferretti, Mussolini’s press officer
and one of Fascism’s most prominent theorists of sport, suggested, such
successes were uniting the Italian diaspora behind the regime and
symbolized the rise of the Fascist Italian nation.
Until this point, ‘Italy’ was a more accurate term for the geographical
area united by the 1861 Risorgimento (Unification) than the ‘Italian
nation’, which remained a disparate, disconnected entity, in need of physical
and psychological integration.
In the current environment of a crisis of confidence in debt markets, many countries are
encountering difficulty in obtaining private financing using traditional financial
instruments. The scarcity of capital threatens to jeopardize long-term growth and
employment generation in developing countries, which tend to have limited access to
capital even in the best of times. Official aid alone will not be adequate to bridge nearor
long-term financing gaps. Ultimately, it will be necessary to adopt innovative
financing approaches to target previously untapped investors.
Similarly, it might be possible that the relation between collateral and the probability
of default was different depending on the type of lender. During the time period studied,
savings banks have expanded their activities outside their traditional geographic markets and
therefore it can be expected that they face a more severe adverse selection problem than
banks which have grown mostly within their traditional markets. If this was the case among
savings banks, collateral might be used to solve the problem raised by the hidden information
It should be noted, however, that it is difficult, if not impossible,
given available data, to identify mainstream capital market participation
by diasporas. Investments made by diaspora members in conventional
investment vehicles open to all investors are indistinguishable from other
foreign investments. But governments and businesses in some countries
of origin have created financial instruments especially designed to tap into
the wealth of diaspora populations. While some are aimed at high-net-
worth individuals, some are accessible to small-scale savers.