Xem 1-20 trên 22 kết quả Dietary energy
  • The unit of energy : + in the dietary domain : calorie ( cal) + in the dietician’s capitalized : Calorie (Cal) + in mechanic : Joule ( J ) 1 Cal = 1000 cal =1 kcal= 4186.8 J * somes notes : + The well-fed adult : 2400 kcal /day + mankind uses the energy Consumption for many purposes .

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 70. Nutritional Requirements and Dietary Assessment Nutritional Requirements and Dietary Assessment: Introduction Nutrients are substances that must be supplied by the diet because they are not synthesized in the body in sufficient amounts. Nutrient requirements for groups of healthy persons have been determined experimentally. For good health we require energy-providing nutrients (protein, fat, and carbohydrate), vitamins, minerals, and water.

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  • This report is one of a series that presents a comprehensive set of reference values for nutrient intakes for healthy U.S and Canadian populations. It is a product of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine working in cooperation with scientists from Canada.

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  • Water For adults, 1.0–1.5 mL water per kcal of energy expenditure is sufficient under usual conditions to allow for normal variations in physical activity, sweating, and solute load of the diet. Water losses include 50–100 mL/d in the feces, 500–1000 mL/d by evaporation or exhalation, and, depending on the renal solute load, ≥1000 mL/d in the urine. If external losses increase, intakes must increase accordingly to avoid underhydration. Fever increases water losses by approximately 200 mL/d per °C; diarrheal losses vary but may be as great as 5 L/d with severe diarrhea.

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  • Physiologic Factors Growth, strenuous physical activity, pregnancy, and lactation increase needs for energy and several essential nutrients, including water. Energy needs rise during pregnancy, due to the demands of fetal growth, and during lactation, because of the increased energy required for milk production. Energy needs decrease with loss of lean body mass, the major determinant of REE. Because both health and physical activity tend to decline with age, energy needs in older persons, especially those over 70, tend to be less than those of younger persons.

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  • In the first volume of this two-volume book, Advanced Nutrition: Macronutrients , the needs for the macronutrients were discussed. The absorption, metabolism, excretion, and function of the various sources of energy as well as detailed discussions of the need for water and energy balance were presented. The needs for the micronutrients, as well as explanations of how these nutrients function in the body, were deferred to this, the second volume.

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  • Nutrients are substances that must be supplied by the diet because they are not synthesized in the body in sufficient amounts. Nutrient requirements for groups of healthy persons have been determined experimentally. For good health we require energy-providing nutrients (protein, fat, and carbohydrate), vitamins, minerals, and water. Specific nutrient requirements include 9 essential amino acids, several fatty acids, 4 fat-soluble vitamins, 10 water-soluble vitamins, and choline.

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  • The increased attention given to equine nutritional issues during the last 6–7 years by research groups around the world, has prompted me to revise the 2nd edition of this book. The preparation of this edition entailed the careful reading of the previous edition and with it the embarrassing discovery of a few errors, including one or two in equations, which I have now corrected. It has been necessary to revise all chapters and other sections, some to a greater extent than others.

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  • In this study they reported the number of patients who were adherent to the ADA diet recommendations and were able to achieve the recommended intakes of various types of fats. They found that levels of adherence to the recommendations was low with only 26.6% of patients consuming the recommended amount of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), 13.0% consuming the recommended ≥10% of dietary energy from polyunsaturated fats, and 38.5% consuming the recommended ≥60% of dietary energy from carbohydrates and monounsaturated fats. They also estimated that 46.

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  • Chapter 49 - Nutrition and special diets. This chapter gives you an understanding of how a well-planned diet can lead to optimal health and well-being for your patients. After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Describe how the body uses food, explain the role of calories in the diet, identify nutrients and their role in health, recall the dietary guidelines for Americans,...

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  • Chapter 18 - Nutrition and special diets. After you have mastered the material in this chapter, you will be able to: Describe how the body uses food, explain the role of calories in the diet, identify nutrients and their role in health, recall the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, describe the test used to assess body fat,...

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  • The diet is the source of some 40 nutrients for human beings. These classically are divided into energy-yielding dietary components (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins), sources of essential and nonessential amino acids (proteins), essential unsaturated fatty acids (fats), minerals (including trace minerals), and vitamins (water-soluble and fat-soluble organic compounds) (see Shils et al . , 1999).

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  • Fatty acids are an important energy source, for they yield over twice as much energy as an equal mass of carbohydrate or protein. In humans, the primary dietary source of fatty acids is triacylglycerols. This lecture will describe the metabolism of fatty acids. The two main components of fatty acid metabolism are β oxidation and fatty acid synthesis. Upon completion of this lecture, you will understand that the fatty-acid breakdown reactions of β oxidation result in the formation of reduced cofactors and acetyl-CoA molecules, which can be further catabolized to release free energy.

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  • Many enzymes are added to grain feeds in order to convert some of the indigestible carbohydrates acting only as dietary fiber to accessible energy sources. AMYLASES and GLYCASES (i.e. xylanase, cellulase, galactanase, mannanase, pectinase).

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  • Lifestyle Management Obesity care involves attention to three essential elements of lifestyle: dietary habits, physical activity, and behavior modification. Because obesity is fundamentally a disease of energy imbalance, all patients must learn how and when energy is consumed (diet), how and when energy is expended (physical activity), and how to incorporate this information into their daily life (behavior therapy). Lifestyle management has been shown to result in a modest (typically 3– 5 kg) weight loss compared to no treatment or usual care.

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  • Attempts to meet GHGE targets from the food chain must not be made in isolation because any dietary recommendations to reduce GHGEs must also meet dietary requirements for the health of the population. The most recent population-based energy and nutrient requirements were published in 1991 by the Department of Health (DoH 1991), with subsequent recommendations for specific food items such as fruit and vegetables, red and processed meat, and fish set by other organisations such as the Food Standards Agency and the World Cancer Research Fund (FSA 2007, WCRF 2007).

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  • The workplace as a health promotion setting Workplace health promotion (WHP) programmes, targeting physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits, are effective in improving health- related outcomes such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Enhancing employee productivity, improving corporate image and moderating medical care costs are some of the arguments that might foster senior management to initiate and invest in WHP programmes.

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  • Because of the three­part process used to develop and communicate the 2005 Dietary Guidelines, this publication and the report of the DGAC differ in scope and purpose compared to reports for previous versions of the Guidelines. The 2005 DGAC report is a detailed scientific analysis that identifies key issues such as energy balance, the conse­ quences of a sedentary lifestyle, and the need to emphasize certain food choices to address nutrition issues for the American public.

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  • Good nutrition is vital to good health and is absolutely essential for the healthy growth and development of  children and adolescents. Major causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States are related to poor diet and  a sedentary lifestyle. Specific diseases and conditions linked to poor diet include cardiovascular disease, hyper­ tension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, overweight and obesity, osteoporosis, constipation, diverticular disease, iron deficiency anemia, oral disease, malnutrition, and some cancers.

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  • Whilst it is acknowledged that Australians are world leaders in pasture based grazing systems (one of the lowest cost methods of feeding cows), research indicates that these systems combined with partial mixed rations (PMR) and a low level of concentrates will result in improved milk production and utilisation of pasture (Bargo, Muller, Delahoy, Cassidy 2002). The implementation of a pasture based grazing system in isolation will leave the cow with an effective shortage of energy due to relatively low total dietary intakes.

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