Xem 1-20 trên 20 kết quả Dietary sources
  • Representing one of the most important lifestyle factors, diet can strongly influence the incidence and onset of cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative disorders. Recent dietary intervention studies in several mammalian species, including humans, with flavonoid-rich foods, in particular Vitis vinifera (grape), Camellia sinensis (tea), Theobroma cacao (cocoa), and Vaccinium spp. (blueberry), have indicated an ability of these dietary components to improve memory and learning.

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  • Fatty acids are an important energy source, for they yield over twice as much energy as an equal mass of carbohydrate or protein. In humans, the primary dietary source of fatty acids is triacylglycerols. This lecture will describe the metabolism of fatty acids. The two main components of fatty acid metabolism are β oxidation and fatty acid synthesis. Upon completion of this lecture, you will understand that the fatty-acid breakdown reactions of β oxidation result in the formation of reduced cofactors and acetyl-CoA molecules, which can be further catabolized to release free energy.

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  • T he science of human nutrition and its applications to health promotion continue to gain momentum. In the relatively short time since the release of the first edition of this Encyclopedia, a few landmark discoveries have had a dramatic multiplying effect over nutrition science: the mapping of the human genome, the links between molecular bioenergetics and lifespan, the influence of nutrients on viral mutation, to name a few.

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  • In the first volume of this two-volume book, Advanced Nutrition: Macronutrients , the needs for the macronutrients were discussed. The absorption, metabolism, excretion, and function of the various sources of energy as well as detailed discussions of the need for water and energy balance were presented. The needs for the micronutrients, as well as explanations of how these nutrients function in the body, were deferred to this, the second volume.

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  • Dietary Sources The retinol activity equivalent (RAE) is used to express the vitamin A value of food. One RAE is defined as 1 µg of retinol (0.003491 mmol), 12 µg of βcarotene, and 24 µg of other provitamin A carotenoids. In older literature, vitamin A was often expressed in international units (IU), with 1 RAE being equal to 3.33 IU of retinol and 20 IU of β-carotene, but these units are no longer in current scientific use. Liver, fish, and eggs are excellent food sources for preformed vitamin A; vegetable sources of provitamin A carotenoids include dark green and deeply colored...

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  • Selenium Selenium, in the form of selenocysteine, is a component of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which serves to protect proteins, cell membranes, lipids, and nucleic acids from oxidant molecules. As such, selenium is being actively studied as a chemopreventive agent against certain cancers, such as prostate. Selenocysteine is also found in the deiodinase enzymes, which mediate the deiodination of thyroxine to triiodothyronine (Chap. 335).

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  • This guide provides practical guidelines for policy makers on how best to review the process of policy development and establish strategic plans for micro, small and medium enterprise development. It is a further tool and reference source for all policy makers and actors dealing with small businesses, especially in transition countries seeking to further develop their market economies. Private sector development relies on a partnership between the private and public sectors.

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  • The diet is the source of some 40 nutrients for human beings. These classically are divided into energy-yielding dietary components (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins), sources of essential and nonessential amino acids (proteins), essential unsaturated fatty acids (fats), minerals (including trace minerals), and vitamins (water-soluble and fat-soluble organic compounds) (see Shils et al . , 1999).

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  • This group constitutes the majority of dietary antioxidants (and also of secondary plant metabolites). Plants typically produce polyphenols as a defence against herbivores and various stresses in general. It is estimated that in Westernized countries, polyphenol intake is approx. 0.4-1g/d and capita (reviewed by Bouayed and Bohn, 2010), with higher intake for persons following a vegetarian diet. Food sources that are especially rich in polyphenols include, among others, potato, plums, leafy vegetables, whole grain products, and coffee (Souci et al., 2000). ...

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  • Many enzymes are added to grain feeds in order to convert some of the indigestible carbohydrates acting only as dietary fiber to accessible energy sources. AMYLASES and GLYCASES (i.e. xylanase, cellulase, galactanase, mannanase, pectinase).

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  • We are pleased to present the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. This document is intended to be a primary source of dietary health information for policymakers, nutrition educators, and health providers. Based on the latest scientific evidence, the 2005 Dietary Guidelines provides information and advice for choosing a nutritious diet, maintaining a healthy weight, achieving adequate exercise, and “keeping foods safe” to avoid foodborne illness. This document is based on the recommendations put forward by the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee.

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  • Biotin Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a role in gene expression, gluconeogenesis, and fatty acid synthesis and serves as a CO 2 carrier on the surface of both cytosolic and mitochondrial carboxylase enzymes. The vitamin also functions in the catabolism of specific amino acids (e.g., leucine). Excellent food sources of biotin include organ meat such as liver or kidney, soy, beans, yeast, and egg yolks; however, egg white contains the protein avidin, which strongly binds the vitamin and reduces its bioavailability.

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  • Vegetarians of all types can achieve recommended nutrient intakes through careful selection of foods. These individuals should give special attention to their intakes of protein, iron, and vitamin B12, as well as calcium and vitamin D if avoiding milk products. In addition, vegetarians could select only nuts, seeds, and legumes from the meat and beans group, or they could include eggs if so desired. At the 2,000­calorie level, they could choose about 1.5 ounces of nuts and  2 /3 cup legumes instead of 5.

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  • Zinc Zinc is an integral component of many metalloenzymes in the body; it is involved in the synthesis and stabilization of proteins, DNA, and RNA and plays a structural role in ribosomes and membranes. Zinc is necessary for the binding of steroid hormone receptors and several other transcription factors to DNA. Zinc is absolutely required for normal spermatogenesis, fetal growth, and embryonic development.

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  • Because of the three­part process used to develop and communicate the 2005 Dietary Guidelines, this publication and the report of the DGAC differ in scope and purpose compared to reports for previous versions of the Guidelines. The 2005 DGAC report is a detailed scientific analysis that identifies key issues such as energy balance, the conse­ quences of a sedentary lifestyle, and the need to emphasize certain food choices to address nutrition issues for the American public.

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  • There is a growing body of evidence which demonstrates that following a diet that complies with the Dietary Guidelines may reduce the risk of chronic disease. Recently, it was reported that dietary patterns consistent with recommended dietary guidance were associated with a lower risk of mortality among individuals age 45 years and older in the United States.

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  • A basic premise of the Dietary Guidelines is that nutrient needs should be met primarily through consuming foods. Foods provide an array of nutrients and other compounds that may have beneficial effects on health. In certain cases, fortified foods and dietary supplements may be useful sources of one or more nutrients that otherwise might be consumed in less than recommended amounts. However, dietary supplements, while recommended in some cases, cannot replace a healthful diet.

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  • A basic premise of the Dietary Guidelines is that food guidance should recommend diets that will provide all  the nutrients needed for growth and health. To this end, food guidance should encourage individuals to achieve  the most recent nutrient intake recommendations of the Institute of Medicine, referred to collectively as the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Tables of the DRIs are provided at http://www.iom.edu/Object.File/Master/21/372/0.pdf.

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  • Efforts may be warranted to promote increased dietary intakes of potassium, fiber, and possibly vitamin E, regard­ less of age; increased intakes of calcium and possibly vitamins A (as carotenoids) and C and magnesium by adults; efforts are warranted to increase intakes of calcium and possibly magnesium by children age 9 years or older. Efforts may be especially warranted to improve the dietary intakes of adolescent females in general. Food sources of these nutrients are shown in appendix B.

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  • Comprehensive policy on CAM and TM is lacking in most countries, including the United States. According to the 1994 Dietary Supplement, Health, and Education Act, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration cannot require proof that dietary supplements and herbal products are safe and effective before they are sold, although it is charged with requiring good man- ufacturing practices.

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