Diffractive optics

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  • The 21st century is said to be a photon-century. People meet contemporary optics (holography, as well) applications everywhere. It would be appropriate to increase the common education level in this field for people to be able to understand new surrounding technologies, entering our everyday lives. Optics serves as an important part of many scientific experimental methods. This way, such information could be useful also for researchers without a professional optical education.

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  • Ads for one Macintosh computer bragged that it could do an arithmetic calculation in less time than it took for the light to get from the screen to your eye. We find this impressive because of the contrast between the speed of light and the speeds at which we interact with physical objects in our environment. Perhaps it shouldn’t surprise us, then, that Newton succeeded so well in explaining the motion of objects, but was far less successful with the study of light.

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "The physics of vibrations and waves" has contents: Waves in more than one dimension, fourier methods, waves in optical systems, interference and diffraction, wave mechanics, non linear oscillations and chaos, non linear waves, shocks and solitons.

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  • Lithography, the fundamental fabrication process of semiconductor devices, is playing a critical role in micro- and nano-fabrications and the revolution in high density integrated circuits. Traditional optical lithography (photolithography) including contact and project photolithography has contributed significantly to the semiconductor device advancements.

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  • Since the First International Congress on Liquid Crystals (Lcs), held at Kent State University, OH, USA, in 1965, the implications of these systems associated with various aspects of telecommunications, laser, display, automobile, aerospace technologies, thermo-optics, medicine and biology have been the subject of considerable debate among researchers, scientists and engineers. Indeed, LCs, being a unique mesomorphic phase of matter, combine properties of both solids (long-range orientation order, manifestations of Bragg diffraction, etc.) and liquids (fluidity, viscosity, etc.).

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  • Conventional optical instruments make use of light that is transmitted between different locations in the form of beams that are collimated, relayed, focused, or scanned by mirrors, lenses, and prisms. Optical beams diffract and broaden, but they can be refocused by the use of lenses and mirrors. Although such beams are easily obstructed or scattered by various objects, this form of free-space transmission of light is the

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  • PROPAGATION OF LIGHT IN FREE SPACE A. Correspondence Between the Spatial Harmonic and the Plane Wave B. Transfer Function of Free Space C. Impulse-Response Function of Free Space OPTICAL FOURIER TRANSFORM A. Fourier Transform in the Far Field B. Fourier Transform Using a Lens DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT A. Fraunhofer Diffraction *B. Fresnel Diffraction IMAGE FORMATION A. Ray-Optics Description of Image Formation B. Spatial Filtering C. Single-Lens Imaging System HOLOGRAPHY

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  • Diffraction When light passes an edge, it will deviate from rectilinear propagation. This phenomenon (which is a natural consequence of the wave nature of light) is known as diffraction and plays an important role in optics. The term diffraction has been conveniently defined by Sommerfeld as ‘any deviation from rectilinear paths which cannot be interpreted as reflection or refraction’. A rigorous theory of diffraction is quite complicated. Here we develop expressions for the diffracted field based on Huygens’ principle of secondary spherical wavelets.

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  • Computerized Optical Processes For almost 30 years, the silver halide emulsion has been first choice as the recording medium for holography, speckle interferometry, speckle photography, moir´ and optical e filtering. Materials such as photoresist, photopolymers and thermoplastic film have also been in use. There are two main reasons for this success. In processes where diffraction is involved (as in holographic reconstruction), a transparency is needed. The other advantage of film is its superior resolution.

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  • The structural, morphological and optical properties of CBD deposited CdS thin films have been studied by varying the processing parameters and the Cd/S ratio of the starting precursors in order to better understand the growth conditions. The films were characterized by Xray diffraction, SEM, Raman, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. XRD patterns show that asdeposited CdS films were polycrystalline. The grain size are increasing with increasing the Cd/S ratio and/or the deposition time.

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