Alter the appearance, aroma, texture and flavor of a product.
Deliver nutrients more effectively to the body or to make a food that is
difficult to digest a bit easier to swallow.
Accelerate the good fermentation time, giving a finished product in weeks
instead of months.
(BQ) Part 1 book "The microbiology of anaerobic digesters" presents the following contents: Introduction, bacteria, methane forming bacteria, respiration, anaerobic food chain, fermentation, fermentation, substrates and products.
Carbohydrates are sugars and starches derived from cereals, tubers, roots, and other
substances such as cellulose and lignin from plant cell walls, vessels and woody tissues.
Carbohydrates do mainly provide energy for maintenance and production. A surplus of
energy is stored as body fat.
A part of the carbohydrates is crude fibre (CF), the remaining is nitrogen-free extract (NFE).
The latter consists of sugars, starches and sugar-like substances. Sugars and starches are
much easier to digest than CF.
All animals digest their food, carry on gas exchange, excrete waste, circulate nutrient and waste products to and from the cells, coordinate their movements, protect themselves, and reproduce and disperse the species. The more complex animals have organ systems to carry out these functions; in simple animals, these functions sometimes are carried out by specialized tissues.
The main audiences and stakeholders who must be engaged for programs to be effective in
changing food marketing to children reflect the societal sectors most closely associated with
food, marketing, and health:
The food and beverage industry could take several actions to address its role in the childhood
obesity epidemic. First, food and beverage marketers should take steps to avoid using
promotional tactics that attract children to unhealthy eating. The industry should research and
adopt a code ...
Once upon a time people simply sat down to dinner, eating to fill up an
empty stomach or just for the pleasure of it. Nobody said, “Wow, that
cream soup is loaded with calories,” or asked whether the bread was a highfiber
loaf or fretted about the chicken being served with the skin still on. No
longer. Today, the dinner table can be a battleground between health and
pleasure. You plan your meals with the precision of a major general moving
his troops into the front lines, and for most people, the fight to eat what’s
good for you rather than what tastes good has become a...
Social life. Leisure time. Say goodbye to both of them. Quoting Professor V.V. Chari:
“You’ll find a new ability to sleep during times and positions you’ve never dreamed of.”
It is not uncommon to start your day at 7:00 A.M. to discover you’re going to bed at 2:00
or 3:00 A.M., and repeat again. And then, you discover that you’ve been working all day long,
no breaks except for food / classes / teaching (this last one, in case you’re TAing). You should be
able to program yourself to accept this as a way of life during the first year,...
The body is often divided into body systems.
Each system, though performing specific
jobs, works together with the other systems.
Body systems are made from microscopic building
blocks, called cells. A typical cell is only 0.011 inches
across. There are about 10 trillion cells in the body.
There are many different kinds of cells, such as nerve cells
and muscle cells. Many cells of the same kind form tissue, such as nerve
and muscle tissue. Two or more different kinds of tissue create an organ,
like the brain, stomach, or kidney.
Animals fed on concentrate-rich diets ( 60%), may go off-feed due to ruminal acidosis. A
low pH is detrimental to the rumen fibre digesting bacteria which may cause a depression in fat
content in the milk. It can also affect the animal’s health status. In such cases, use of a buffer is rec-
ommended comprising sodium bi-carbonate and magnesium oxide (3:1) to be fed @ 50–75 g per
animal per day. Alternatively it is possible to introduce some longer physical fibre into the ration (e.g.
paddy straw) to promote rumination and saliva production.
(BQ) Ebook Like science: Body Systems helps you know what are the different types of tissue found in the body? Name the parts of a neuron, and tell what each part does; what is the difference between voluntary and involuntary muscles? Your digestive system breaks down the food you eat so your cells can use it. Write to explain the different ways your body digests food.
(BQ) Part 2 book "Gastrointestinal physiology" presents the following contents: Gastric secretion, pancreatic secretion, bile secretion and gallbladder function, digestion and absorption of nutrients, fluid and electrolyte absorption, regulation of food intake.
Collection of reports on medical research published in the medical journal Critical Care helps you have more knowledge about medicine subjects: Should digestion assays be used to estimate persistence of potential allergens in tests for safety of novel food proteins?
A healthy digestive system is fundamental to supporting human life. Its ability to extract nutrients from the food we eat affects our general well-being in health and our response to illness in ill-health. Disorders of the digestive system range from mild and self-limiting to severe and life-threatening, but affect everyone to some extent and at some point during their life. This chapter provides a general overview of the digestive system, and then explores its components in greater detail. Common conditions are examined through patient scenarios.
Chapter 29 - The digestive system. After completing chapter 29, you will be able to: List the functions of the digestive system; trace the pathway of food through the alimentary canal; describe the structure and functions of the mouth, teeth, tongue, and salivary glands; describe the structure and function of the pharynx; describe the swallowing process;...
Chapter 31 - The digestive system. After completing chapter 31, you will be able to: List the functions of the digestive system; trace the pathway of food through the alimentary canal; describe the structure and functions of the mouth, teeth, tongue, and salivary glands; describe the structure and function of the pharynx; describe the swallowing process;...
Drugs Acting on the Sympathetic Nervous System
of the sympathetic division can be considered a means by which the body achieves a state of maximal work capacity as required in fight or flight situations. In both cases, there is a need for vigorous activity of skeletal musculature. To ensure adequate supply of oxygen and nutrients, blood flow in skeletal muscle is increased; cardiac rate and contractility are enhanced, resulting in a larger blood volume being pumped into the circulation. Narrowing of splanchnic blood vessels diverts blood into vascular beds in muscle.
The stomach is located in the epigastrium and the main physiological function of stomach is
reservoir of food and drink, then food and drink are fermenting and grinding by action of
the stomach so disturbance of these functions of the stomach will cause poor appetite,
capacity for only small amount of food, and pain in the epigastric region. Of course, only in
cooperation with the spleen's function digesting and transforming food and drink can be
performed successfully by the stomach's function of receiving, to receive, digest and
transform the food and drink.
The discovery and utilization of fire, a simple energy source with many profound uses, was a turning point in the technological evolution of humankind. The exact date of its discovery is not known; evidence of burnt animal bones at the Cradle of Humankind suggests that the domestication of fire occurred before 1,000,000 BC; scholarly consensus indicates that Homo erectus had controlled fire by between 500,000 BC and 400,000 BC.
5 Food Acquisition, Processing, and Digestion
It is a classic moment from a TV nature show: a cheetah pursues a ﬂeeing gazelle. The cheetah’s sensory, neural, and muscular systems work at full capacity in support of this unfolding drama. For some predators, however, the real drama begins after consumption.