The carbon dioxide molecule becomes cluster to
minimize the free energy; as a result pore nucleation is created. These pores cause the
significant expansion of polymeric volume and decrease in polymeric density. A three-
dimensional porous structure (scaffolds) is formed after completion of foaming process.
The porosity of the scaffolds is controlled by the use of porogens like sugar, salts and wax
.Application of Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis to Construction Materials
.RILEM STATE-OF-THE-ART REPORTS
RILEM, The International Union of Laboratories and Experts in Construction Materials, Systems and Structures, founded in 1947, is a non-governmental scientific association whose goal is to contribute to progress in the construction sciences, techniques and industries, essentially by means of the communication it fosters between research and practice.
The seeming simplicity of our daily activities is greatly contrasted by the
complexity of our true nature—quite a paradox, no doubt. It is simple in
that, on the outside, the goals of our body may appear few. We internalize
food, water, and oxygen while at the same time ridding ourselves of carbon
dioxide and other waste materials. These operations support reproduction,
growth, maintenance, and defense. Yet on the inside our body
may seem very complex as various organs participate in a tremendous
number of complicated processes intended to meet the simple goals
Photosynthesis is the primary source of energy for all life forms (except chemolithotrophic prokaryotes). Much of the energy of photosynthesis is used to drive the synthesis of organic molecules from atmospheric CO2. How is solar energy captured and transformed into metabolically useful chemical energy? How is the chemical energy produced by photosynthesis used to create organic molecules from carbon dioxide?
Asghar et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011, 6:372 http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/6/1/372
Shrinking of Solid-state Nanopores by Direct Thermal Heating
Waseem Asghar1,2, Azhar Ilyas1,2, Joseph Anthony Billo1,2 and Samir Muzaffar Iqbal1,2,3*
Abstract Solid-state nanopores have emerged as useful single-molecule sensors for DNA and proteins. A novel and simple technique for solid-state nanopore fabrication is reported here.
Many of the fabrication techniques require use of organic solvents and high temperature.
The residues that remains after completion of process can damage cells and nearby tissues.
This may also denature the biologically active molecules incorporated within the scaffolds.
The gas foaming scaffold fabrication techniques does not require the utilization of organic
solvents and high temperature.
This technique uses high pressure carbon dioxide gas for the fabrication of highly porous