Resistance towards the responsible pathogens are also seen in developed countries. The
situation has worsened often due to limited resource available to investigate and provide
reliable susceptibility data on which rational treatments can be based as well as means to
optimize the use of antimicrobial agents. The emergence of multi-drug-resistant isolates in
tuberculosis, acute respiratory infections and diarrhea, often referred to as diseases of
poverty, has had its greatest toll in developing countries.
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 131. Diphtheria and Other Infections Caused by Corynebacteria and Related Species
Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Toxigenic strains of C. diphtheriae produce a protein toxin that causes systemic toxicity, myocarditis, and polyneuropathy. The toxin is associated with the formation of pseudomembranes in the pharynx during respiratory diphtheria. While toxigenic strains most frequently cause pharyngeal diphtheria, nontoxigenic strains commonly cause cutaneous disease.
Respiratory Diphtheria The clinical diagnosis of diphtheria is based on the constellation of sore throat; adherent tonsillar, pharyngeal, or nasal pseudomembranous lesions; and low-grade fever. In addition, diagnosis requires the isolation of C. diphtheriae or the histopathologic isolation of compatible gram-positive organisms.
Pathogenesis and Immunology
Diphtheria toxin, produced by toxigenic strains of C. diphtheriae, is the primary virulence factor in clinical disease. The toxin is synthesized in precursor form; is released as a 535-amino-acid, single-chain protein; and has an LD50 of ~100 ng/kg of body weight. The toxin is produced in the pseudomembranous lesion and is taken up into the bloodstream, through which it is distributed to all organ systems.
The fifth volume of Birkhäuser Advances in Infectious Diseases is focused
on pediatric infectious diseases.
In modern medicine, the discipline pediatric infectious diseases is an
important medical specialty. The successful prevention of childhood diseases
like diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis has made a major contribution to
the improvement of public health. Understanding the biology of causative
agents and the pathogenesis is an essential step in achieving control and
elimination of disease. Today pediatric infectious diseases research is closely
interconnected with other disciplines....
Diphtheria is a nasopharyngeal and skin infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Toxigenic strains of C. diphtheriae produce a protein toxin that causes systemic toxicity, myocarditis, and polyneuropathy. The toxin is associated with the formation of pseudomembranes in the pharynx during respiratory diphtheria. While toxigenic strains most frequently cause pharyngeal diphtheria, nontoxigenic strains commonly cause cutaneous disease.
TB spreads through the air from one person to another. The bacteria are put into the air
when a person with active TB disease of the lungs or throat coughs or sneezes. People
nearby may breathe in these bacteria and get infected. When a person breathes in TB
bacteria, which may settle in the lungs and begin to grow. From there, they can move
through the blood to other parts of the body, such as the kidney, spine, and brain. TB in the
lungs or throat can be infectious. This means that the bacteria can spread to other people. TB...
Approaches to Passive Immunization Passive immunization is generally used to provide temporary immunity in a person exposed to an infectious disease who has not been actively immunized; this situation can arise when active immunization is unavailable (e.g., for respiratory syncytial virus) or when active immunization simply has not been implemented before exposure (e.g., for rabies). Passive immunization is used in the treatment of certain illnesses associated with toxins (e.g.
You should require that all children admitted to your care be up to date on their vaccinations. The
state of Delaware requires you to have written proof of each child's up-to-date vaccinations.
Children attending childcare especially need all of the recommended vaccinations to protect
themselves, the other children, and the childcare provider, and their families. Several diseases
that can cause serious problems for children and adults can be prevented by vaccination. These
diseases are chicken pox, diphtheria, Haemophilus influenzae...
Population displacement caused by cyclone damage and flooding can result in overcrowding in
resettlement areas, raising the risk of transmission of certain communicable diseases. Measles (see section
below on vaccine-preventable diseases), ARI, diphtheria and pertussis are transmitted from person to
person through respiratory droplets, and the risks are increased in situations of forced relocation to shared
areas which are overcrowded and have inadequate ventilation. Overcrowding can also increase the
likelihood of transmission of meningitis, waterborne and vector-borne diseases.
The result in table 2 showed that a total of 24,818 were vaccinated against
six different disease (tuberculosis, Tetanus, cerebrospinal meningitis,
poliomyelitis, measles and Diphtheria) with the vaccines against
cerebrospinal meningitis (CSM) and measles being the most administered.
The result in table 3 showed immunization coverage as assessed by the
questionnaire method indicate that the total 65.