Disadvantaged countries

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  • Looking at the issues from a developing country perspective, it seems likely that developing countries would be granted special and differential treatment. Here the rather weak Cairns Group S&D offer should not be used as the main indicator as it can be expected that the Like-Minded Group, the African Group, developing country Friends of Multifunctionality as well as Members in transition and newly acceded Members will be able to push the negotiations more towards an outcome that would take better account of the needs and priorities of disadvantaged countries.

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  • There have been multiple studies of programs focused on positive youth outcomes in general and on reproductive health behaviors in particular. Many programs show promising results, although there have been few rigorous experimental replication studies. See the “what works” table at the end of the chapter for details on specific programs.

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  • Foreign direct investment may improve productivity through technology transfer on the one hand, and it may also have other positive external effects through corporate linkages (e.g. market access, or improved terms of financing) on the other hand, thus promoting economic growth. These beneficial effects are not automatic, though. Until the mid-nineties Hungary had played a leading role within the region in attracting investments. After 1999, however, the country started accumulating increasing competitive disadvantages as compared to its competitors.

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  • But what does this trend in competition do for the cities? The answer is certainly not definitive, but in its emerging outlines, it is disturbing yet also offers hope. To the extent that this tendency makes cheap labor locations around the world more accessible, it fur- ther amplifies the competitive disadvantage of urban locations in the United States. The impact of increases in trade with low-wage countries on U.S. employment, especially on low-skilled workers, has been hotly debated (Freeman, 1995; Wood, 1995).

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  • The development of the small and medium enterprise sector is deemed crucial for economic growth and poverty alleviation. Such firms are often though to be at a disadvantage when compared with larger enterprises, but the reverse can apply, for example in the more flexible approach of the smaller firm. This paper draws on a private sector survey in 80 countries examining whether business obstacles are related to firm size.

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  • As is well known, a large part of the remittances is channelled via the informal financial system through money transfer companies. So far, the access of migrants and their families to the formal financial system has been very limited due, in part, to the fact that a large proportion of the remittance senders are in an irregular situation in the developed countries. Cost and insecurity are usually pointed out as the main disadvantages to transferring remittances via the informal system.

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  • Addressing the options for domestic sustainable agriculture policies in developing countries, it is generally observed that the world’s agriculture trade system is progressively moving towards an open-market system, a process which is desirable from both a trade as well as a sustainable development point of view.

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  • The biggest losers have been the most vulnerable and disadvantaged groups in society, especially rural women and men in developing countries. Three out of four poor people in developing countries live in rural areas, and most depend on agriculture or related activities for their livelihoods. According to a World Bank country rating study, in agriculture-based countries – those where agriculture contributes an average of 32 per cent of GDP growth – 70 per cent of poor people live in rural areas.

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  • A key consideration for policymakers, then, is whether the trade-off between efficiency and financial stability argues for policies that reflect a preference for certain cross-border banking structures. This paper examines the relative advantages and disadvantages of different organizational structures for cross-border banking groups both from the point of view of the financial groups and of the home/host authorities.

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  • At last the tea came up, and so With that our tongues began to go. Now in that house you're sure of knowing The smallest scrap of news that's going. We find it there the wisest way To take some care of what we say. RECREATION. JANE TAYLOR I was born on the 2nd September, 1886, in a small, dull, country town. When I say the town was dull, I mean, of course, that the inhabitants were unenterprising, for in itself Muddleton was a picturesque place, and though it laboured under the usual disadvantage of a dearth of bachelors and a superfluity of spinsters, it might...

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  • The potential for eGovernment in developing countries, however, remains largely unexploited, even though. ICT is believed to offer considerable potential for the sustainable development of eGovernment. Different human , organizational and technological factors, issues and problems pertain in these countries, requiring focused studies and appropriate approaches. ICT, in general, is referred to as an “enabler”, but on the other hand it should also be regarded as a challenge and a peril in itself.

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  • Most analyses of the relationship between health and the economy focus on average health, but health is actually very unevenly distributed across society. In all countries with available data, significant differences in health exist between socioeconomic groups, in the sense that people with lower levels of education, occupation and/or income tend to have systematically higher morbidity and mortality rates.

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  • Screening for precancerous lesions can be done in several ways including, cervical cytology (Pap tests), visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid [VIA] or testing for HPV DNA. Each of these methods has specific advantages, disadvantages and health systems requirements that countries should consider when planning screening programmes (See Annex 1).

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  • Are there countries in which the gender-based division of labor or disparities in resources or power between males and females are so small as to have minimal implications for human well-being, economic growth, and poverty reduction? We examine this issue here. To preview our conclusion: although some countries have more numerous or extreme gender disparities or forms of female (or male) disadvantage than others, no country is entirely free of the gender patterns that we know to be harmful for development and the improved well-being of the population.

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  • The starting point here are the WTO domestic support rules applying to developing countries.

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  • Services should be made accessible to disadvantaged women and maintain high levels of confidentiality and respect. Based on conditions of the country, specific region, or population being targeted innovative approaches to screening through self-sampling, service delivery through mobile clinics, or a combination of the two may be tested and utilized if proven effective.

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  • Chapter 21 - Exchange rates, international trade, and capital flows. When you finish this chapter, you should be able to: Define the nominal exchange rate and use supply and demand to analyze how the nominal exchange rate is determined in the short run, distinguish between fixed and flexible exchange rates and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each system, define the real exchange rate and show how it is related to the prices of goods across pairs of countries,…

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  • To address some of the challenges described above, the WHO/HAI Project on Medicine Prices and Availability has initiated a set of activities to strengthen policy guidance on issues relating to medicine prices, availability and affordability, with a specific focus on the needs of low- and middle-income countries. These include a series of in-depth reviews on policies and other interventions to manage medicine prices, increase availability and make medicines more affordable.

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