Xem 1-8 trên 8 kết quả Disaster mitigation
  • Hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, landslides and volcanic eruptions—and the devastation they inflict—are all too familiar to the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. In the last decade, natural disasters have caused more than 45,000 deaths in the region, left 40 million injured or in need of assistance, and carried a price tag—in direct damage alone—of more than US$20 billion.1 The health sector has proven particularly vulnerable to such havoc.

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  • Approaches to Disaster Management regards critical disaster management issues. Ten original research reports by international scholars centered on disaster management are organized into three general areas of hazards and disaster management. The first section includes discussions of perspectives on vulnerability and on evolving approaches to mitigation. The second section highlights approaches to improve data use and information management in several distinct applications intended to promote prediction and communication of hazard.

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  • In conducting their operations, farmers are exposed to financial losses because of production risks—droughts, floods, and other natural disasters—as well as price risks. The federal government has played an active role in helping to mitigate the effects of these risks on farm income by promoting the use of crop insurance. RMA has overall responsibility for administering the federal crop insurance program, including controlling costs and protecting against fraud, waste, and abuse.

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  • This manual covers a number of major areas, which either singularly of collectively, have historically exacerbated the problems inherent in mass crowd-intensive events. These areas include such aspects as physical layouts (including site, structures, and access), spectator management (including crowd organization, flow, and ingress/egress control), and public safety (including security, public health, and medical care).

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  • One of the reasons private crop insurance markets have not developed is the relatively low demand for crop insurance. Despite large subsidies in the United States, crop insurance participation historically has been relatively low. Farmers and ranchers use a variety of risk management strategies to mitigate the risks they face (Harwood, Heifner, Coble, Perry, and Somwaru, 1999; U.S. GAO, 1999), many of which compete with crop insurance. These include futures and options markets, contracting, cultural practices that reduce crop loss (e.g.

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  • There has been much discussion in recent months concerning who might be included in the population of “vulnerable” residents. The term “vulnerable” has most often been used interchangeably with the term “special needs.” In the most broad sense as related to disaster management, the vulnerable population refers to those individuals who do not feel they can adequately access the resources they need during all four phases of a disaster: preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation.

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  • The study of natural catastrophe models plays an important role in the prevention and mitigation of disasters. After the occurrence of a nat- ural disaster, the reconstruction can be financed with catastrophe bonds (CAT bonds) or reinsurance. This paper examines the calibration of a real parametric CAT bond for earthquakes that was sponsored by the Mexican government. The calibration of the CAT bond is based on the estimation of the intensity rate that describes the earthquake process from the two sides of the contract, the reinsurance and the capital markets, and from the historical data.

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  • As the study of natural catastrophe models plays an important role in the preven- tion and mitigation of disasters, the main motivation of this paper is the analysis of pricing CAT bonds. In particular, we examine the calibration of a parametric CAT bond for earthquakes that was sponsored by the Mexican government and issued by the special purpose CAT-MEX Ltd in May 2006.

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