It is our pleasure to present the Proceedings of the 16th
International Congress on Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and
Related Disorders (16th ICPD) which took place in Berlin
from June 5–9, 2005. This congress was the most successful
congress ever with more than 3500 participants in the
roaring German capital, consisting of an innovative program
and with emphasis on bringing basic and clinical scientists
together. Special attention has was paid in inviting young
The requirements for discharging known or highly-suspected multi-drug resistant TB (MDRTB) patients are more stringent. Since the number of new MDRTB patients in NYC has decreased by over 90% since 1992, the likelihood that a patient whose susceptibility results are not yet available upon discharge will have MDRTB is very small.
The NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) maintains an excellent infrastructure of ambulatory care clinics to diagnose and treat TB patients and to provide supporting services such as DOT, all free of charge to the patient.
Clinical Presentation and Staging Patients with cervix cancer generally are asymptomatic, and the disease is detected on routine pelvic examination. Others present with abnormal bleeding or postcoital spotting that may increase to intermenstrual or prominent menstrual bleeding. Yellowish vaginal discharge, lumbosacral back pain, lower-extremity edema, and urinary symptoms may be present.
The staging of cervical carcinoma is clinical and generally completed with a pelvic examination under anesthesia with cystoscopy and proctoscopy.
Inspection of the vulva and perineum may reveal tender genital ulcerations (typically due to HSV infection, occasionally due to chancroid) or fissures (typically due to vulvovaginal candidiasis) or discharge visible at the introitus before insertion of a speculum (suggestive of bacterial vaginosis or trichomoniasis).
Obtaining an accurate 24-hour-sleep-wake history is extremly important. History should be
focused also on relevant factors as medical history, compensation of epilepsy, type and
frequency of epileptic seizures, their incidence according to circadian cycle and actual
antiepileptic medication, or other drug and medication use. Also social, enviromental or
psychological conditions, which may interfere with sleep quality, should be evaluated.
Neurological examination in connection with neuroimaging methods (MRI) can detect
cerebral leasions as the reason of sleep problems.
Abnormal Vaginal Discharge If directly questioned about vaginal discharge during routine health checkups, many women acknowledge having nonspecific symptoms of vaginal discharge that do not correlate with objective signs of inflammation or with actual infection. However, unsolicited reporting of abnormal vaginal discharge does suggest bacterial vaginosis or trichomoniasis. Specifically, an abnormally increased amount or an abnormal odor of the discharge is associated with one or both of these conditions. Cervical infection with N. gonorrhoeae or C.
Leukorrhea is a usually whitish vaginal discharge that may occur at any age and affects virtually all women at some time. Although some vaginal discharge (mucus) is physiologic and nearly always present, when it becomes greater or abnormal (bloody or soils clothing), is irritating, or has an offensive odor, it is considered pathologic. Pathologic discharge is often coupled with vulvar irritation. Commonly, the pathologic conditions are due to infection of the vagina or cervix.