We investigate the empirical behavior of ngram discounts within and across domains. When a language model is trained and evaluated on two corpora from exactly the same domain, discounts are roughly constant, matching the assumptions of modiﬁed Kneser-Ney LMs. However, when training and test corpora diverge, the empirical discount grows essentially as a linear function of the n-gram count. We adapt a Kneser-Ney language model to incorporate such growing discounts, resulting in perplexity improvements over modiﬁed Kneser-Ney and Jelinek-Mercer baselines. ...
In this chapter, we assume that the appropriate measure of future equity cash flows is dividends. We will use dividend discount models (DDMs) and the discount rates discussed in Chapter 2 to determine the common stock value. The topics discussed in this chapter are: An overview of present value models, the general form of the DDM, the Gordon growth model, multistage dividend discount models, and the determinants of dividend growth rates.
After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Calculate single trade discounts with formulas and complements, explain the freight terms FOB shipping point and FOB destination, find list price when net price and trade discount rate are known, calculate chain discounts with the net price equivalent rate and single equivalent discount rate,...
After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: Differentctiiate between interest-bearing and non-interest-bearing notes; calculate bank discount and proceeds for simple discount notes; calculate and compare the interest, maturity value, proceeds, and effeve rate of a simple interest note with a simple discount note; explain and calculate the effective rate for a Treasury bill;...
In the financial appraisal of a project, the cashflow statements are constructed
from two points of view: the Total Investment (TI) Point of View and the Equity
Point of View. One of the most important issues is the estimation of the correct
financial discount rates for the two points of view. In the presence of taxes, the benefit
of the tax shield from the interest deduction may be excluded or included in the free
cashflow (FCF) of the project. Depending on whether the tax shield is included or
excluded, the formulas for the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) will be
Bài giảng Chapter 10: The Basics of Capital Budgeting: Evaluating Cash Flows provides about Overview and “vocabulary”, Methods (Payback, discounted payback; NPV; IRR, MIRR; Profitability Index), Unequal lives, Economic life.
The Oxford Monographs on Criminal Law and Justice series covers all aspects of criminal law and procedure including criminal evidence. The scope of the series is wide, encompassing both practical and theoretical works.
This volume is a thematic collection of essays on sentencing theory by leading writers.
When you fi nish this chapter, you should have some very practical skills. For example, you will know how to calculate your own car payments or student loan payments. You will also be able to determine how long it will take to pay off a credit card if you make the minimum payment each month (a practice we do not recommend).
In this chapter, students will be able to understand: Be able to compute the future value of multiple cash flows, be able to compute the present value of multiple cash flows, be able to compute loan payments, be able to find the interest rate on a loan, understand how loans are amortised or paid off, understand how interest rates are quoted.
The two approaches to valuing common stocks using fundamental security analysis are:
Discounted Cash flow techniques.
Attempts to estimate the value of a stock today using a present value analysis.
Relative valuation techniques.
A stock is valued relative to other stocks based on the basis of ratios.
Chapter 2 – Discounted cash flow applications. This chapter calculate and interpret the net present value (NPV) and the internal rate of return (IRR) of an investment, contrast the NPV rule to the IRR rule, calculate the money-weighted and time-weighted rates of return of a portfolio,...
Chapter 5 - Accounting for inventories. After you have mastered the material in this chapter, you will be able to: Record and report on inventory transactions using a perpetual system; explain the meaning of terms used to describe transportation costs, cash discounts, returns or allowances, and financing costs.
The learning objectives for this chapter include: Describe the two types of capital investment decisions with which managers may be faced: accept or reject decisions, capital-rationing decisions; describe the method of calculation of non-discounting models: payback period, accounting rate of return; explain the advantages and limitations of non-discounting models;...
Essentials of Investments: Chapter 2 - Financial Markets and Instruments presents Major Classes of Financial Assets or Securities, Markets and Instruments, Money Market Instrument Yields, Bank Discount Rate, Bond Equivalent Yield.
In this chapter, the learning objectives are: Explain the strategic role of capital-investment analysis, describe how accountants can add value to the capital- budgeting process, provide a general model for determining relevant cash flows associated with capital-expenditure projects, apply discounted cash flow (DCF) decision models for capital-budgeting purposes,…