Discovery and development

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  • For the last 60 or so years the chemotherapy of bacterial infections has been dominated by natural products and their semi-synthetic variants. Although the term antibiotic was initially used exclusively to describe those anti-bacterials of natural or semi-synthetic origin, it has become broadened in common usage to include antibacterial agents of purely synthetic origin as well. The emphasis of this chapter will be on the discovery of novel prototype structures that represent the different classes of antibiotic e.g.

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  • Complex software-based systems today power the Nation’s most advanced defense, security, and economic capabilities. Such systems also play central roles in science and engineering discovery, and thus are essential in addressing this century’s grand challenges (e.g., low-cost, carbon-neutral, and renewable energy; clean water; next-generation health care; extreme manufacturing; space exploration, etc.). These large-scale systems typically must remain operational, useful, and relevant for decades.

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  • Medicinal chemistry is a discipline at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents (drugs). Compounds used in medical applications are most often organic compounds, which are often divided into the broad classes of small organic molecules and biologics, the latter of which are most often medicinal preparations of proteins. Inorganic and organometallic compounds are also useful as drugs.

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  • Worldwide, crude oil demand is unceasingly increasing. As a response, Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes have re‐gained interest from the research and development phases to the oilfield EOR implementation stage. This renewed interest has been also furthered by the current high oil price environment, the maturation of oilfields worldwide, and few new‐well discoveries. Concurrently, environmental concerns and public pressure related to crude oil pollution control and remediation of oilcontaminated sites are becoming greater than ever....

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  • Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) is the only biomarker routinely used for the early detection of prostate cancer, but it is not a perfect test. Although PSA is highly specific for prostate, an elevated level is not specific for cancer, being increased in benign hyperplasia and prostatitis (Pungalia, 2006; Bozeman, 2002). Consequently, the majority of men with an increased serum PSA do not have prostate cancer and thus undergo unnecessary prostate biopsies.

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  • All other aspects of Marketing and Innovation remain fairly steady, but businesses continue to have difficulty promoting their businesses effectively to increase sales. Success in the Workforce area slipped this wave, as small businesses feel less successful in training and developing employees (only 58 percent are highly successful compared to 65 percent a year ago). They do moderately well in maximizing employee productivity and rewarding employees. Customer Service is an area where small businesses continue to shine.

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  • Pursuant to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a) (Privacy Act), HUD published in the Federal Register on July 17, 2012, at 77 FR 41997, a notice that announced a new system of records for OGC’s E-Discovery Management System (OGC-EDMS), a system expected to significantly improve the efficiency of OGC’s processing of records during the preservation, discovery, and processing of litigation requests when litigation is “reasonably anticipated”1 and reduce the time HUD staff spend on the document review and production process.

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: The first set of EST resource for gene discovery and marker development in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.)

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: ESTs from a wild Arachis species for gene discovery and marker development

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  • The discovery that microRNAs (miRNAs) are synthesized as hairpin-con-taining precursors and share many features has stimulated the development of several computational approaches for identifying new miRNA genes in various animal species.

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  • This paper reports on exploratory research to identify the most important legal and economic implications of electronic discovery and to develop a research plan in this subject area for the RAND Institute for Civil Justice. To achieve these objectives, we reviewed the current state of electronic discovery (e-discovery) law and practices, including the main features of the new federal rules, interviewed several experts in electronic discovery issues as well as in-house counsel for a number of very large corporations, conducted an initial...

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  • Since biomarkers of safety and efficacy are becoming tools in drug development, it is necessary to determine whether these biomarkers can qualify for applications in clinical trials. Qualification is defined as “a conclusion that the biomarker data submitted support use of the biomarker in drug discovery, drug development or post approval studies and where appropriate, in regulatory decision making” (ICH E-16). A definition of validation was proposed during the workshop.

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  • This module teaches students how to publish Web Services and locate Web Services using the Microsoft® Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI) software development kit (SDK). A local development UDDI registry is used in the demonstrations and lab for this module, but the mechanics of publishing and finding Web Services is no different on the public UDDI registry nodes.

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  • The discovery of efficacious new human therapeutic agents is one of humanity’s most vital tasks. It is an enormously demanding activity that requires creativity, a vast range of scientific knowledge, and great persistence. It is also an exceedingly expensive activity. In an ideal world, no education would be complete without some exposure to the ways in which new medicines are discovered and developed. For those young people interested in science or medicine, such knowledge is arguably mandatory....

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  • Great efficiencies have been achieved in the drug discovery process as a result of technological advances in target identification, high-throughput screening, high-throughput organic synthesis, just-in-time in vitro ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion), and early pharmacokinetic screening of drug leads. These advances, spanning target selection all the way through to clinical candidate selection, have placed greater and greater demands on the analytical community to develop robust high-throughput methods.

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  • In the last decade, we have witnessed a rapid growth in research and development of nanotechnology, especially nanostructured materials. Nanoporous materials as an important class of nanostructured materials possess high specific surface area, large pore volume, uniform pore size, and rich surface chemistry. These materials present great promises and opportunities for a new generation of functional materials with improved and tailorable properties for applications in adsorption, membranes, sensors, energy storage, catalysis and photocatalysis, and biotechnology, etc.

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  • Preformulation is a bridge between discovery and development where development scientists participate in selection and optimization of lead compounds. It is very critical at this stage to evaluate the developability of potential drug candidates in order to select new chemical entities and decrease the number of failures during future drug development. On average, only one out of ten new chemical entities (NCE) entering firstin-human testing reaches registration, approval, and marketing stage.

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  • The theoretical metrics developed, such as genetic variance and heritability (Fisher, 1930; Wright, 1931), provided the quantitative standards necessary for the evolutionary synthesis. Further research has focused on the origin of genetic diversity, its maintenance and its role in evolution. Simple questions such as “who breeds with whom” initiated studies on the relatedness of populations.

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  • Chemistry plays a key role in conquering diseases, solving energy problems, addressing environmental problems, providing the discoveries that lead to new industries, and developing new materials and technologies for national defense and homeland security. However, the field is currently facing a crucial time of change and is struggling to position itself to meet the needs of the future as it expands beyond its traditional core toward areas related to biology, materials science, and nanotechnology....

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  • In the past years, research in the field of responsive business environments has had many successes. The most significant of these has been the development of powerful new tools and methodologies that advance the subject of Business Intelligence (BI). This book provides the BI practitioner and researcher with a comprehensive view of the current art and the possibilities of the subject.

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