This book represents a condensed version of the 20 topics dealing with imaging diagnosis and interventional therapies in musculoskeletal diseases. The disease-oriented topics encompass all the relevant imaging modalities including X-rays technology, nuclear medicine, ultrasound and magnetic resonance, as well as image-guided interventional techniques.
Thyroid and parathyroid diseases are among the most frequent conditions we have to
deal with in a clinical setting. Both nodular and autoimmune diseases affecting these
glands have increased remarkably over the past decades. The widespread use of crosssectional
imaging and the introduction of neck ultrasonography have led to a thyroid
nodule epidemics and the diagnostic of neck lesions in half of the population.
Consequently, many patients with microscopic papillary thyroid cancers of uncertain
clinical significance are submitted to surgeries that may, perhaps, be unnecessary....
Infectious diseases continue to represent a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in the
critical care unit. Infectious diseases maintain their preeminence in the critical care unit setting
because of their frequency and importance in the critical unit patient population.
Since the first edition of Infectious Diseases in Critical Care Medicine, there have been newly
described infectious diseases to be considered in differential diagnosis, and new antimicrobial
agents have been added to the therapeutic armamentarium.
As for the fi rst edition of this volume, the chapters comprise comprehensive discussions of
the some of the major non-infectious disorders of fi nfi sh. It is the second volume of a threevolume
series on fi sh diseases and disorders; Volume 1 deals with parasitic diseases and
Volume 3 with microbial diseases. Reviews in the three volumes are written by leading
international authorities who are actively working in the area or who have contributed
greatly to our understanding of specifi c diseases or disorders....
For many years, the number one cause of death in the United States
has been heart disease, which kills more than 650,000 people per
year. In addition, almost 25 million people were living with a diagnosis
of heart disease in 2004, according to the National Center for Health
Statistics. The American Medical Association wants people to know and
understand that aside from some inherited or congenital conditions,
heart disease is largely preventable.
During the diagnosis of oral and maxillofacial diseases, clinical and radiological data play a
major role. In this region, only a good clinical diagnosis along with a radiological examination
may lead to a successful diagnosis. A successful diagnosis and evaluation of clinical
examination are generally up to a profound knowledge of the normal anatomy of the region.
The mortality from ischemic heart disease has decreased in recent years. The better under‐
standing of risk factors associated with development of coronary artery disease (CAD) has
significantly contributed to this decline. Preventive measures such as aggressive therapy of
arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and lipid disorders and by campaigning against the
smoking are important components of this medical success.
Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women worldwide, and infection with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) has been identified as the causal agent for this condition. The natural history of cervical cancer is characterized by slow disease progression, rendering the condition in essence preventable and even treatable when diagnosed in early stages.
The PSA criteria used to recommend a diagnostic prostate biopsy have evolved over time. The goal is to increase the sensitivity of the test for younger men more likely to die of the disease and to reduce the frequency of detecting cancers of low malignant potential in elderly men more likely to die of other causes. Age-specific reference ranges reduce the upper limit of normal for younger men and increase it for older men. Different thresholds alter the sensitivity and specificity of detection. The threshold for performance of a biopsy was 4.0 ng/mL, which has been reduced to 2.6...
When PV presents with erythrocytosis in combination with leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, or both, the diagnosis is apparent. However, when patients present with an elevated hemoglobin or hematocrit alone, or with thrombocytosis alone, the diagnostic evaluation is more complex because of the many diagnostic possibilities (Table 103-2). Furthermore, unless the hemoglobin level is ≥20 gm% (hematocrit ≥60%), it is not possible to distinguish PV from disorders causing plasma volume contraction.
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 113. Introduction to Infectious Diseases: Host–Pathogen Interactions
Host–Pathogen Interactions: Introduction
Despite decades of dramatic progress in their treatment and prevention, infectious diseases remain a major cause of death and debility and are responsible for worsening the living conditions of many millions of people around the world. Infections frequently challenge the physician's diagnostic skill and must be considered in the differential diagnoses of syndromes affecting every organ system.
The microbiology laboratory must be an ally in the diagnostic endeavor. Astute laboratory personnel will suggest optimal culture and transport conditions or alternative tests to facilitate diagnosis. If informed about specific potential pathogens, an alert laboratory staff will allow sufficient time for these organisms to become evident in culture, even when the organisms are present in small numbers or are slow-growing.
Table 123-1 Relative Sensitivity and Specificity of Diagnostic Tests for Clostridium difficile–Associated Disease (CDAD)
Type of Test
Stool for C. difficile
Most sensitive test; specificity is ++++ if the C.
In clinical practice left ventricular (LV) function is commonly
evaluated by 2-D and M-mode echocardiography.
These modalities have significant limitations,and tissue
Doppler imaging (TDI) has been introduced as a quantitative
and more objective method for assessing myocardial
function. The TDI modalities include myocardial
velocity imaging,displacement imaging,strain rate imaging,
and strain imaging (Fig. 1).
Over the past few decades the field of neurology has seen spectacular developments in diagnostic techniques, most vividly
exemplified by modern neuroimaging and molecular genetics. Although not always at the same speed this evolution has
gone hand in hand with an enlarging armentarium of effective therapies to treat neurological disease.
There are changes in the clinical presentation of the co-infected patient as compared to when each infection is
present individually. There may be different symptoms and atypical signs. There may be decreased reliability of
standard diagnostic tests, and most importantly, there is recognition that chronic, persistent forms of each of
these infections do indeed exist. As time goes by, I am convinced that even more pathogens will be found.
We are pleased to present the Tenth Edition of Veterinary
Medicine, 45 years since the first'Blood and Henderson' Veterinary
Medicine was published in 1960. Because the demand for this
book continues undiminished, we assume that we have a
philosophy, a format and a price that is attractive and meets the
demands of undergraduate veterinary students and graduate
veterinarians working in the field of large-animal medicine. For
this edition, Significant changes were needed to keep up to date
with the increasingly rapid expansion of knowledge about the
diseases of large animals.