Association rules represent a promising technique to find
hidden patterns in a medical data set. The main issue about
mining association rules in a medical data set is the large
number of rules that are discovered, most of which are irrelevant.
Such number of rules makes search slow and interpretation
by the domain expert difficult. In this work, search
constraints are introduced to find only medically significant
association rules and make search more efficient.
Biomedical research has entered a new era of characterizing a disease or a protein on a global scale. In the post-genomic era, Proteomics now plays an increasingly important role in dissecting molecular functions of proteins and discovering biomarkers in human diseases. Mass spectrometry, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and high-density antibody and protein arrays are some of the most commonly used methods in the Proteomics field.
Presti et al. took two extra biopsies laterally on each side at the base and mid gland in
addition to the traditional sextant technique in an effort to include more peripheral zone
tissue in their sampling (Presti et al., 2000). This produced a 10-core biopsy. They enrolled
483 men with either abnormal DRE or a PSA 4 ng/mL. On analysis of the cancer detection
rate from each side, it was discovered that the traditional sextant technique missed 20% of
Results of a comprehensive review of pediatric trials con
ducted between 1988 and 2006 suggested that the benei ts
of antidepressant medications likely outweigh their risks to
children and adolescents with major depression and anxiety
disorders. he study was funded in part by the National Insti
tute of Mental Health.
Most books on house rabbits are written as a result of
the author’s personal experience with a rabbit companion.
This book is no exception. I first conceived
the idea of writing about disabled buns after my experiences
with a rabbit who required constant specialized care. He inspired
me to write an article about caring for special-needs
rabbits, which appeared online, and I then planned to expand
the topic into a book.
Under GHI, the U.S. has joined multilateral efforts involving the United Nations and others to accelerate progress
toward achieving Millennium Development Goals 1(c), 4, 5, and 6. For example, GHI is building on existing U.S. sup-
port to the GAVI Alliance to include vaccines that protect against pneumococcal disease and rotavirus. Similarly, GHI
is strengthening already close U.S. collaboration with the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, as
well as sustaining its leadership in and commitment to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). The U.S.
Jennifer Peterson was 35 and pregnant when she discovered a lump in her breast. Tests
showed she had invasive breast cancer.
21 The cancer and its treatment, separate and apart
from the pregnancy, were a threat to her health. A health exception recognizes the added
threat to her health posed by pregnancy during the onset and treatment of her cancer, while
without such an exception Jennifer would have been forced to continue her dangerous
As a research scientist in the area of human nutrition, I have observed a sea change in
emphasis within my field over the past 10–15 years. There have always been dynamics
within the subject: During the first half of the twentieth century, scientists grappled with
discovering the essential micronutrients and with characterizing the biological effects of
their deficiency. This interest in “too little” was supplanted in the mid-1980s by a preoccupation
with too much—too much fat, too much sugar, and too much obesity.
For example, the read ﬁlter for socket descriptors is
triggered as long as there is data in the socket buffer
greater than the SO LOWAT mark, or when the socket
has shutdown and is unable to receive any more data.
The ﬁlter will return the number of bytes pending in the
socket buffer, as well as set an EOF ﬂag for the shutdown
case. This providesmore information that the application
can use while processing the event.
Women’s health concerns have been considered,
examined, and researched differently by the medical
establishment than those of men. Their concerns and
diseases have often been considered unusual and
abnormal when compared to those of men. Yet, the
differences between women and men, discovered and
noted in medicine and research, may be more a creation
of society and its expectations than that of
nature.1 Women are more similar to men than they
In ancient Greece, people would journey to an oracle, or fortune teller,
to discover what the future held. The oracle would kill an animal,
perhaps a goat or a sheep, to examine the creature’s liver. A dark red
liver that was smooth was a good sign. A pale liver that was bumpy
foretold bad times ahead.
The liver has long been linked to human courage and strength.
The earliest doctors thought that the liver was one of the three
main organs of the body. The others were the heart and the brain.
Around a.d. 200, the famous Roman doctor Galen declared the liver
to be the most important human...
Similarly, looking at the database of human health, total outpatient (OPD) visits, and
the percentage shared by the respiratory disease (ARI) for two years, it quite clearly
reflects the increasing trend of respiratory disease. From 1996 till 1998, number of
ARI patient is increasing at the rate of 22.89 percent per year. Similarly, share of ARI
patient out of total OPD visit has been increased from 9.99 to 10.11 percent within
the same span of time.
elementary-school parents in St. Paul and Roseville, Minnesota, to discover how children travel to
school and underlying factors influencing parent's choice of their child's travel mode. From this
information we develop a statistical model of travel mode choice. We find that children's commute
mode and parental attitudes towards school selection differ by school type (magnet versus neighbor-
hood), income, and race.
The right to health is NOT the same as the right to be
healthy. A common misconception is that the State has to
guarantee us good health. However, good health is influenced by
several factors that are outside the direct control of States, such as
an individual’s biological make-up and socio-economic conditions.
Rather, the right to health refers to the right to the enjoyment of a
variety of goods, facilities, services and conditions necessary for its
An external consultant was also hired to develop tools and carry out computerized analysis of data for the
baseline and end-line surveys. An orientation session on data collection was provided to a team of five
persons from each of the five target provinces of Thanh Hoa, Quang Ngai, Binh Duong, Dong Nai and Ho
Chi Minh, to help them understand the questionnaires and how to fill in data. These surveys reached up to
734 individuals, comprising 416 women with children under five, and 318 day care workers. Results of two
surveys were available in late September and late...
There is a critical need for improved and shorter tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Current in vitro
models of TB, while valuable, are poor predictors of the antibacterial effect of drugs in vivo.
Mathematical models may be useful to overcome the limitations of traditional approaches in
TB research. The objective of this study was to set up a prototype mathematical model of TB
treatment by rifampin, based on pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and disease submodels.
Sciences (EHS) is a dynamic group of
faculty and students exploring the impact
of chemical, biological, and physical agents
on human health. We work to discover the
sources and distribution of these agents;
understand individual response at the
molecular, cellular, organ, and whole-body
levels; assess environmental risk and devise
prevention and intervention strategies.
Current thinking on the environment and
health has propelled us to consider how the
built environment and the social environment
influence human health beyond the
traditional focus on hazardous agents.
The generation line of broiler comes from pure line, which is imported. This
produces grand parents for parent stocks and parent stock end up in producing the
final product. The farmers get day old broiler from hatcheries. These hatcheries
maintain their breeder farms, or in some cases, purchase their hatching eggs from
breeder farms. These breeder farms depend on producers of parent stock.
Poultry feed mills are the major player in the poultry industry, which produce a
specific formula feed mix.
The complete or partial works included in this volume were scanned,
transcribed, or typed from the originals, from copies of the originals,
or from translations. In our search for classics in public health, we found
that some works were reprinted several times, had updated versions of
the originals or new editions with introductions or commentary, and appeared
in different formats in a variety of places. We also found that some
works were translated by different individuals, leading to discrepancies in
Patients with kidney disease may present with abnormal
urinary ﬁndings. A carefully performed urinalysis using
physical, chemical, and microscopic examination is an easy
and informative tool to the practicing physician . The
American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a urinalysis as
a part of preventive pediatric health care at age 5 years and
mid-adolescence . An abnormal urinalysismay be the only
presenting sign of chronic GN.
The most common urinary abnormalities are hematuria
and proteinuria. Hematuria may be gross or microscopic,
discovered during a routine urinalysis.