Disease eradication

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  • Independent research on a health issue is often the first step to complement discussions with a physician. But locating accurate, well-organized, understandable medical information can be a challenge. A simple Internet search on terms such as “cancer” or “diabetes,” for example, returns an intimidating number of results. Sifting through the results can be daunting, particularly when some of the information is inconsistent or even contradictory.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về bệnh thú y được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành thú y đề tài: Regional Eradication of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae From Pig Herds and Documentation of Freedom of the Disease...

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  • The optimism born of the world's first successful disease-eradication campaign invigorated the international health community, if only briefly. Global consensus regarding the right to primary health care for all was reached at the International Conference on Primary Health Care in Alma-Ata (in what is now Kazakhstan) in 1978. However, the declaration of this collective vision was not followed by substantial funding, nor did the apparent consensus reflect universal commitment to the right to health care. Moreover, as is too often the case, success paradoxically weakened commitment. ...

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  • Since its inception in 1999, The World Life Sciences Forum BioVision has played a vital role in promoting the sustainable development of Life Sciences on an international level, ensuring that they remain beneficial to humankind and the environment, and committed to ethics. BioVision has established itself as a platform for dialogue and debate by engaging top stakeholders and policy makers from Science, Society and Industry in discussions of what science can do, what society is willing to accept, and what industry can produce, all within a sound ethical framework.

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  • Proteins synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are properly folded with the assistance of ER chaperones. Malfolded proteins are disposed of by ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). When the amount of unfolded protein exceeds the folding capacity of the ER, human cells acti-vate a defense mechanism called the ER stress response, which induces expression of ER chaperones and ERAD components and transiently attenuates protein synthesis to decrease the burden on the ER.

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  • The most important treatment of acute rheumatic fever is prevention, associated with improvements in socioeconomic conditions. Once acute rheumatic fever has occurred, treatment includes penicillin to eradicate the streptococcal infection, high dose aspirin as an anti-inflammatory drug, or steroids if the cardiac disease is severe. Heart failure is treated with diuretics, and urgent heart valve replacement may occasionally be required.

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  • There is no obvious reason why both types of programmes—shorter-termeradicationinitiatives and longer-termdevelopmentalprogrammes—shouldnot coexist.

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  • WHOís failure to eradicate malaria (after a significant victory over smallpox) revealed the interrelationship of health and infrastructure, culture, politics and economic stability. In addition, it demonstrated the imperative that health campaigns be culturally-sensitive and discredited the notion of magic bullets for the worldís disease burdens.

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  • eradicate extreme poverty and hunger (Mdg 1). Poverty contributes to unintended pregnancies and pregnancy-related mortality and morbidity in adolescent girls and women, and under-nutrition and other nutrition-related factors contribute to 35% of deaths of children under five each year, while also affecting women’s health. Charging people less for health services reduces poverty and makes women and children more willing to seek care.

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  • Brucellosis is a bacterial zoonosis transmitted directly or indirectly to humans from infected animals, predominantly domesticated ruminants and swine. The disease is known colloquially as undulant fever because of its remittent character. Its distribution is worldwide apart from the few countries where it has been eradicated from the animal reservoir. Although brucellosis commonly presents as an acute febrile illness, its clinical manifestations vary widely, and definitive signs indicative of the diagnosis may be lacking.

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  • Contiguous-Focus Osteomyelitis Even when diagnosed early, contiguous-focus osteomyelitis usually requires surgery in addition to 4–6 weeks of appropriate antibiotic therapy because of underlying soft tissue infection or damage to bone from an injury or surgery. A 2-week course of antibiotics after thorough debridement and soft tissue coverage has yielded adequate results in the treatment of superficial osteomyelitis involving only the outer cortex of bone.

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  • Under GHI, the U.S. has joined multilateral efforts involving the United Nations and others to accelerate progress toward achieving Millennium Development Goals 1(c), 4, 5, and 6. For example, GHI is building on existing U.S. sup- port to the GAVI Alliance to include vaccines that protect against pneumococcal disease and rotavirus. Similarly, GHI is strengthening already close U.S. collaboration with the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, as well as sustaining its leadership in and commitment to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). The U.S.

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  • Migraine Headaches: Treatment Once a diagnosis of migraine has been established, it is important to assess the extent of a patient's disease and disability. The Migraine Disability Assessment Score (MIDAS) is a well-validated, easy-to-use tool (Fig. 15-4). Figure 15-4 Patient education is an important aspect of migraine management. Information for patients is available at www.achenet.org, the website of the American Council for Headache Education (ACHE).

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  • The Transplant Preparative Regimen The treatment regimen administered to patients immediately preceding transplantation is designed to eradicate the patient's underlying disease and, in the setting of allogeneic transplantation, immunosuppress the patient adequately to prevent rejection of the transplanted marrow. The appropriate regimen therefore depends on the disease setting and source of marrow.

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  • Responding to the disease burden of Communicable and Noncommunicable Diseases (NCD), the WCO will help strengthen the national capacity to reduce morbidity and mortality due to AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, achieve high-level immunization coverage with all antigens in order to reduce the burden of vaccine-preventable diseases, achieve the eradication of polio, elimination/control of measles and neonatal tetanus, reduce morbidity due to helminthiasis, eliminate leprosy, intensify surveillance and response to epidemic-prone diseases, and reduce/control the burden of NCDs, while paying atten...

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  • Vaccine-preventable diseases are responsible for a significant proportion of the approximately 11 mil- lion deaths that occur annually among children under 5 years of age (Table 1). Yet, nowhere is the contrast between short-term disease-specific programmes and long-term developmental programmes more evident than in the area of childhood vaccination. Two contemporary vaccination strategies have received massive support from both the public and private sectors. The highest profile public health programme is the initiative to eradicate poliomyelitis.

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