Tham khảo sách 'atopic dermatitis – disease etiology and clinical management edited by jorge esparza-gordillo and itaru dekio', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả
Erythroderma (Table 54-2) Erythroderma is the term used when the majority of the skin surface is erythematous (red in color). There may be associated scale, erosions, or pustules as well as shedding of the hair and nails. Potential systemic manifestations include fever, chills, hypothermia, reactive lymphadenopathy, peripheral edema, hypoalbuminemia, and high-output cardiac failure. The major etiologies of erythroderma are (1) cutaneous diseases such as psoriasis and dermatitis (Table 54-3); (2) drugs; (3) systemic diseases, most commonly CTCL; and (4) idiopathic.
Chapter 123. Clostridium difficile–Associated Disease, Including Pseudomembranous Colitis (Part 1)
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 123. Clostridium difficile– Associated Disease, Including Pseudomembranous Colitis
Etiology and Epidemiology C. difficile is an obligately anaerobic, gram-positive, spore-forming bacillus whose spores are found widely in nature, particularly in the environment of hospitals and chronic-care facilities. CDAD occurs most frequently in hospitals and nursing homes where the level of antimicrobial use is high and the environment is contaminated by C.
The quality and scientific preciseness of the authors coming from several countries,
does much to give strength to the whole book, especially as it reflects local and
regional realities that characterize the diversity of expression allergic. In fact, the
etiology and clinical response of allergic patient is very different, depending on the
location, habits, socio-economic conditions and even the specific interests of key lines
of investigation developed that the authors have incorporated into the chapters, but
always guided by higher values of accuracy....
Palpable purpura are further subdivided into vasculitic and embolic. In the group of vasculitic disorders, cutaneous small-vessel vasculitis, also known as leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV), is the one most commonly associated with palpable purpura (Chap. 319). Underlying etiologies include drugs (e.g., antibiotics), infections (e.g., hepatitis C virus), and autoimmune connective tissue diseases. Henoch-Schönlein purpura is a subtype of acute LCV that is seen primarily in children and adolescents following an upper respiratory infection.
Red Lesions Cutaneous lesions that are red in color have a wide variety of etiologies; in an attempt to simplify their identification, they will be subdivided into papules, papules/plaques, and subcutaneous nodules. Common red papules include arthropod bites and cherry hemangiomas; the latter are small, bright-red, domeshaped papules that represent benign proliferation of capillaries.
The etiology of PV is unknown. Although nonrandom chromosome abnormalities such as 20q, trisomy 8, and especially 9p, have been documented in up to 30% of untreated PV patients, unlike CML no consistent cytogenetic abnormality has been associated with the disorder. However, a mutation in the autoinhibitory, pseudokinase domain of the tyrosine kinase JAK2—which replaces valine with phenylalanine (V617F), causing constitutive activation of the kinase— appears to have a central role in the pathogenesis of PV.
Chronic Idiopathic Myelofibrosis
Chronic IMF (other designations include agnogenic myeloid metaplasia or myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia) is a clonal disorder of a multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cell of unknown etiology characterized by marrow fibrosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and splenomegaly. Chronic IMF is the least common chronic myeloproliferative disorder, and establishing this diagnosis in the absence of a specific clonal marker is difficult because myelofibrosis and splenomegaly are also features of both PV and CML.
Megakaryocytopoiesis and platelet production depend upon thrombopoietin and its receptor, Mpl. As in the case of early erythroid and myeloid progenitor cells, early megakaryocytic progenitors require the presence of interleukin 3 (IL-3) and stem cell factor for optimal proliferation in addition to thrombopoietin. Their subsequent development is also enhanced by the chemokine stromal cell–derived factor 1 (SDF-1). However, megakaryocyte maturation and differentiation require thrombopoietin.
Document introduction of content: Definitions, epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, medical and surgical management, other forms of diverticular disease, global aspects, references, useful web sites, WGO Practice Guidelines Committee members who contributed to this guideline.
Document presentation of content: Epidemiology, osteoporosis in GI/Liver associated conditions, etiology, diagnosis, management of osteoporosis, literature references, links to useful websites and consensus statements, queries and feedback.
The theoretical manner in which periodontal disease progresses has long been a subject of
debate. It is currently agreed that destructive periodontal disease progresses by means of
asynchronous bursts of activity (Haffajee and Socransky 1986). According to this theory,
periodontal tissue support is lost during short, acute episodes followed by prolonged
periods of quiescence (Reddy, Palcanis, and Geurs 1997).
A wealth of information has accumulated on the subject of hypertension, and the number of publications dedicated to topics
in this field of study continues to increase. It has become nearly impossible for medical professionals to absorb all of the
diverse information and to gather the information into a coherent theoretical concept and practical approach to treating the
disease, even for those of us who are actively involved in this research specialty on a daily basis.
Clinical course of CLL is variable. Recently, progress has been made in the identification of
biological markers that could predict disease progression. Particularly, the expression of
unmutated Ig genes, some cytogenetic abnormalities like 17p and 11q deletions and the
expression of the zeta-associated protein 70 (ZAP-70) are associated to a poor prognosis.
In defining a new paradigm it is difficult to know where to begin. How do you take fifteen years
of medical practice in pathology and ten years of clinical observation utilizing the theories of
traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture, homeopathy, and therapeutic nutrition and meld them
into a model of biological understanding and medical practice? The answer is actually quite simple
— start from the beginning and build a convincing model based upon sound physics, physiology,
pathology, and clinical medicine and see if the model fits the expected outcome.
The progression of disease in localized osteomyelitis is characterized by a cycle of microbial
invasion, vascular disruption, necrosis and sequestration. The host inflammatory response,
discussed in detail below, results in obstruction of small vessels due to coagulopathy and
oedema. As a result of this, cortical bone undergoes necrosis and is detached from
surrounding live bone, creating an area known as a sequestrum. This provides a fertile
environment for further bacterial invasion and progression continues.
EU enlargement, the CAP reform, changing consumer demands and globalization have also
impacted negatively on the agricultural sector (Rudmann, 2008), with the scale of support
provided to farmers drastically reduced (Alsos, Carter, Ljunggren & Welter, 2011). A
gradual decline in income from traditional farming activities has forced many farming
businesses to diversify in order to remain viable. Diversification requires farmers to combine
other, typically non-agricultural activities with their core farm business.
Sarcoidosis is one of the best-known systemic granulomatous diseases. Despite intensive
investigation, however, the etiology of sarcoidosis has remained unresolved for more than 100
years . Sarcoidosis seems to result from the exposure of a genetically susceptible subject to
an environmental agent, and microbial etiologies of sarcoidosis have long been considered
based on the clinical similarities to infectious granulomatous diseases .
Đối với lý do chưa được hiểu rõ, tuyến tiền liệt có vẻ đặc biệt dễ bị viêm mãn tính. Trong khoảng 10% các trường hợp, đây là kết quả của một loại vi sinh vật lây nhiễm vi khuẩn, chlamydia hoặc khác. Đối với 90% còn lại các trường hợp, tuy nhiên, không có nguyên nhân rõ ràng etiological vẫn chưa được xác định.
Varying beliefs about disease etiology may also serve to minimize the
prevalence of trachoma. Beliefs about the causes of disease range from
blindness caused by old age to illness induced by the glance of an
envious person. Cultural beliefs in an Egyptian Delta hamlet
discourage the discussion of trachoma since villagers believe trichiasis
can be spread by word of mouth, and discussion of the disease is equal
to questioning the will of God.
In one study, villagers’ assessments of their quality of vision greatly
exceeded evaluations by ophthalmologists.