Disease mechanisms

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  • Tham khảo sách 'erectile dysfunction – disease-associated mechanisms and novel insights into therapy edited by kenia pedrosa nunes', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Antibody-induced arthritis: disease mechanisms and genes involved at the effector phase of arthritis...

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  • Tham khảo sách 'a disease based comparison of health systems', kỹ thuật - công nghệ, tự động hoá phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), like hepatitis C and HIV, is a disease of our generation. Mostly unrecognized prior to 1980 and seldom taken seriously until the past few years, NAFLD has seemingly been thrust upon us unexpectantly like an orphaned child left at our clinical bedside. In fact, NAFLD was conceived during the industrial revolution, which caused food to be processed differently, provided that food more abundantly and made physical work less demanding.

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  • Over the past decade, there has been a vast explosion in new information relating to the art and science of dermatology as well as fundamental cutaneous biology. Furthermore, this information is no longer of interest only to the small but growing specialty of dermatology. Scientists from a wide variety of disciplines have come to recognize both the importance of skin in fundamental biological processes and the broad implications of understanding the pathogenesis of skin disease. As a result, there is now a multidisciplinary and worldwide interest in the progress of dermatology....

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  • Autoimmune disease represents a group of more than 60 different chronic autoimmune diseases that affect approximately 6% of the population. It is the third major category of illness in the United States and many industrialized countries, following heart disease and cancer. Autoimmune diseases arise when one’s immune system actively targets and destroys self tissue resulting in clinical disease. Common examples include Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Type 1 Diabetes, Rheumatoid Arthritis and Multiple Sclerosis.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'allergic diseases – highlights in the clinic, mechanisms and treatment edited by celso pereira', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • On the initiative of the International Dental Federation, a meeting of consultants was convened by the World Health Organization in 1964 to consider the classification of diseases of the buccal cavity in relation to the impending Eighth (1965) Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). It was recognized that a manual and guide should be compiled to assist in the application of the ICD to dentistry and stomatology. Accordingly, a text was drafted and tested in four countries, then revised and published for general use.

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  • Encounters with Epithelial Cells Over the past decade, many bacterial pathogens have been shown to enter epithelial cells (Fig. 114-2); the bacteria often use specialized surface structures that bind to receptors, with consequent internalization. However, the exact role and the importance of this process in infection and disease are not well defined for most of these pathogens. Bacterial entry into host epithelial cells is seen as a means for dissemination to adjacent or deeper tissues or as a route to sanctuary to avoid ingestion and killing by professional phagocytes.

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  • Over the past few decades the field of neurology has seen spectacular developments in diagnostic techniques, most vividly exemplified by modern neuroimaging and molecular genetics. Although not always at the same speed this evolution has gone hand in hand with an enlarging armentarium of effective therapies to treat neurological disease.

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  • In this book dealing with the lung health, the authors focus on various fields, spreading from pulmonary oncogenesis, to inflammatory and parasitic lung diseases. The first section deals with the fundamental research on lung cancer that is mandatory for the development of novel and early biomarkers for diagnosis of the lung cancer. This development could be enhanced using experimental models despite the species barrier. Mouse models can help us understand the sequence of events involved in human lung neoplasia and their underlying molecular mechanisms....

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 55. Immunologically Mediated Skin Diseases Immunologically Mediated Skin Diseases: Introduction A number of immunologically mediated skin diseases and immunologically mediated systemic disorders with cutaneous manifestations are now recognized as distinct entities with consistent clinical, histologic, and immunopathologic findings. Many of these disorders are due to autoimmune mechanisms.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 114. Molecular Mechanisms of Microbial Pathogenesis Molecular Mechanisms of Microbial Pathogenesis: Introduction Over the past three decades, molecular studies of the pathogenesis of microorganisms have yielded an explosion of information about the various microbial and host molecules that contribute to the processes of infection and disease.

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  • Encounters with Phagocytes Phagocytosis and Inflammation Phagocytosis of microbes is a major innate host defense that limits the growth and spread of pathogens. Phagocytes appear rapidly at sites of infection in conjunction with the initiation of inflammation. Ingestion of microbes by both tissue-fixed macrophages and migrating phagocytes probably accounts for the limited ability of most microbial agents to cause disease.

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  • Invasion Many diseases are caused primarily by pathogens growing in tissue sites that are normally sterile. Pneumococcal pneumonia is mostly attributable to the growth of S. pneumoniae in the lung and the attendant host inflammatory response, although specific factors that enhance this process (e.g., pneumolysin) may be responsible for some of the pathogenic potential of the pneumococcus. Disease that follows bacteremia and invasion of the meninges by meningitisproducing bacteria such as N. meningitidis, H. influenzae, E.

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  • Transmission to New Hosts As part of the pathogenic process, most microbes are shed from the host, often in a form infectious for susceptible individuals. However, the rate of transmissibility may not necessarily be high, even if the disease is severe in the infected individual, as transmissibility and virulence are not linked traits.

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  • Pathogenic Mechanisms Enteric pathogens have developed a variety of tactics to overcome host defenses. Understanding the virulence factors employed by these organisms is important in the diagnosis and treatment of clinical disease. Inoculum Size The number of microorganisms that must be ingested to cause disease varies considerably from species to species. For Shigella, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Giardia lamblia, or Entamoeba, as few as 10–100 bacteria or cysts can produce infection, while 105–108Vibrio cholerae organisms must be ingested orally to cause disease.

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  • Chronic venous disease of the lower limbs is manifested by a range of signs, the most obvious of which are varicose veins and venous ulcers. However, the signs also include edema, venous eczema, hyperpigmentation of skin of the ankle, atrophie blanche (white scar tissue), and lipodermatosclerosis (induration caused by fibrosis of the subcutaneous fat) (Fig. 1). Considerable progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms that underlie these diverse manifestations, in particular the role of inflammation. This article reviews these advances and places them in a clinical context....

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  • Tham khảo sách 'diseases and disorders: depression', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • The human body as a mechanism is far from perfect. It can be beaten or surpassed at almost every point by some product of the machine-shop or some animal. It does almost nothing perfectly or with absolute precision. As Huxley most unexpectedly remarked a score of years ago, "If a manufacturer of optical instruments were to hand us for laboratory use an instrument so full of defects and imperfections as the human eye, we should promptly decline to accept it and return it to him. But," as he went on to say, "while the eye is inaccurate as a microscope, imperfect as a telescope, crude...

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