Biotherapeutics have become the main drivers for the pipeline of the pharmaceutical
industry, and carry hope for millions of patients for a better life with, or even cure from,
diseases for which there are no existing effective treatments. This group of medicines
includes, but is not limited to, protein and nucleic acid-based therapeutics as well as different
classes of vaccines and gene therapy treatments. Today, there are a few hundred
licensed biotherapeutics produced from genetically engineered cells and over a thousand
are in pre-clinical and clinical studies....
Biomedical research has entered a new era of characterizing a disease or a protein on a global scale. In the post-genomic era, Proteomics now plays an increasingly important role in dissecting molecular functions of proteins and discovering biomarkers in human diseases. Mass spectrometry, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and high-density antibody and protein arrays are some of the most commonly used methods in the Proteomics field.
Host Factors in Infection
For any infectious process to occur, the pathogen and the host must first encounter each other. Factors such as geography, environment, and behavior thus influence the likelihood of infection. Although the initial encounter between a susceptible host and a virulent organism frequently results in disease, some organisms can be harbored in the host for years before disease becomes clinically evident. For a complete view, individual patients must be considered in the context of the population to which they belong.
Tilapia tolerate adverse water quality and other stressors better than most other commercial aquaculture species. Because stress and environmental quality play such important roles in the disease process, tilapia are labeled as being very "disease-resistant." This basically means that in the presence of pathogens, tilapia are the last to break with disease.
The Tesla plant in Lanskroun, Czech Republic, was the only producer of capacitors in Czechoslovakia, and of machinery
for that purpose. After central planning was abolished, AVX Kyocera gradually took over the plant and a process of selective
restructuring took place. The combination of gradual change and a positive outlook for the long-term viability of operations
encouraged many former employees (the average qualification level was high) to set up their own small supplier firms for
AVX Kyocera. After a few years, these local suppliers were able to compete with Japanese suppliers.
"Bioactive Food Peptides in Health and Disease" highlights recent developments on bioactive food peptides for the promotion of human health and the prevention/management of chronic diseases. The book provides a comprehensive revision of bioactive peptides obtained from both animal and plant food sources. Aspects related to their bioactivity, mechanism of action, and bioavailability are extensively described along the different chapters.
Note that, although this diagram provides a collapsed view of a complex process that comprises many
different players and steps, it accurately reflects how policy on air pollution is set, who the different
players are in that process, and how the information they need flows through the decision-making chain.
We have used this model to develop the Apheis communications strategy and to determine specifically
with which audiences we need to communicate, what information each audience needs, and in what form
they need it.
Periodontal Disease Periodontal disease accounts for more tooth loss than caries, particularly in the elderly. Like dental caries, chronic infection of the gingiva and anchoring structures of the tooth begins with formation of bacterial plaque. The process begins invisibly above the gum line and in the gingival sulcus. Plaque, including mineralized plaque (calculus), is preventable by appropriate dental hygiene, including periodic professional cleaning.
Pemphigus Vulgaris Pemphigus refers to a group of autoantibody-mediated intraepidermal blistering diseases characterized by loss of cohesion between epidermal cells (a process termed acantholysis). Manual pressure to the skin of these patients may elicit the separation of the epidermis (Nikolsky's sign). This finding, while characteristic of pemphigus, is not specific to this group of disorders and is also seen in toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and a few other skin diseases.
The first, most conventional way to characterize the global health picture is a description
of health and disease. Today, the overall picture for child health and maternal health in poor
countries is worrisome indeed. While child mortality has steadily declined in the last two
decades, still approximately 10.8 million children under the age of five die each year. Progress
on key indicators is slowing, and in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, child mortality is on the rise.
The great bulk of the mortality decline since the 1970s is attributable to reduction in deaths...
The amyloidbpeptide (Ab) is crucial for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s
disease. Aggregation of monomeric Ab into insoluble amyloid fibrils
proceeds through several soluble Abintermediates, including protofibrils,
which are believed to be central in the disease process. The main reason
for this is their implication in familial Alzheimer’s disease with the Arctic
amyloid precursor protein mutation (E693G).
Operation costing is used in situations where products have some common charac-
teristics and some individual characteristics. Shoes, for example, have common character-
istics in that all styles involve cutting and sewing that can be done on a repetitive basis,
using the same equipment and following the same basic procedures. Shoes also have
individual characteristics—some are made of expensive leathers and others may be made
using inexpensive synthetic materials.
This marrow section shows the marrow cavity replaced by fibrous tissue composed of reticulin fibers and collagen. When this fibrosis is due to a primary hematologic process, it is called myelofibrosis. When the fibrosis is secondary to a tumor or a granulomatous process, it is called myelophthisis.
Diagnosis While the clinical picture described above is characteristic of chronic IMF, all of the clinical features described can also be observed in PV or CML.
Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide,
and 3.8 million men and 3.4 million women die of the disease each
year. After an acute myocardial infarction, early and successful myocardial
reperfusion with the use of thrombolytic therapy or primary percutaneous coronary
intervention (PCI) is the most effective strategy for reducing the size of a myocardial
infarct and improving the clinical outcome. The process of restoring blood
flow to the ischemic myocardium, however, can induce injury.
This book is divided to five main chapters discussing the different steps and stages of the
project. It also discusses some of the most important topics that help introducing The
Medical diagnoses system.
The main task
Auriculartherapy using ear acupuncture is a highly developed system for diagnosing and
treating disharmonies anywhere in the body by expertly examining the ear.
The evidence base described here had significant limitations. Most notably, only two
randomized trials addressed hydroxyurea efficacy and safety in patients with sickle cell disease.
While the trial enrolling adults was a high-quality trial, it was not long, with only 2 years
elapsing since randomization. Two years may be adequate for assessing short-term efficacy, but
we had no trial data that made it possible to comment on the long-term efficacy of the drug.
It is 41 years since the first edition of this book was published.
In that time there have been so many developments in
our understanding of dental disease, in materials, and in
techniques so that there is now very little of that first edition
remaining except the basic philosophy for managing
patients with dental disease. This philosophy has several
parallel threads which weave together.
• Dentists primarily look after people with dental problems
– not just mouths or teeth.
• An understanding of the disease processes is fundamental
to their management.
The original purpose of the book was to introduce a standard nomenclature of disease names, and the attributes are o r g a n i z e d in conventional medical form: a d e f i n i t i o n consists of a brief d e s c r i p t i o n of the relevant symptoms, signs, laboratory findings, and the like. Each disease is, in addition, assigned to one (or at most two) of eleven disease categories which enumerate p h y s i o l o g i c a l systems (skin, respiratory, cardiovascular, etc.).
We reviewed an additional 47 studies addressing barriers to the treatment of patients with
sickle cell disease and interventions to overcome these barriers. In our review of barriers to
adequate pain management, we found two factors that were identified as a barrier in more than
two studies: negative provider attitudes and poor provider knowledge.