With this first edition of Migraine and Other Headache Disorders, we celebrate the
remarkable progress in the art and science of headache during the last decade. With
32 chapters by 54 leaders in the field, the book provides health care professionals
with practical approaches to patient care and reviews the scientific foundations of
headache. We emphasize migraine because of its high prevalence, enormous burden,
and the increasing availability of effective management strategies. At the same time,
we provide broad coverage of all the primary headache disorders.
During the last two decades, evidence of increasing trends of several endocrine-related disorders has been strengthened. These disorders often come with lack of uniform diagnosis and/ or even unclear endocrine disruption. The later is mainly due to abnormal classical changes in the blood- released hormone to its targeted organ, abnormal communication between cells within a tissue or organ (paracrine), within the same cell (intracrine) or signals which act on the same cell (autocrine).
Insulin is the principal regulatory hormone involved in the tight regulation of fuel metabolism. In response to blood glucose levels, it is secreted by the b cells of the pancreas and exerts its eﬀects by binding to cell surface receptors that are present on virtually all cell types and tissues. In humans, perturbations in insulin function and/or secretion lead to diabetes mellitus, a severe disorder primarily characterized by an inability to maintain blood glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, it is estimated that 90–95% of diabetic patients exhibit resistance to insulin action....
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 45. Azotemia and Urinary Abnormalities
Azotemia and Urinary Abnormalities: Introduction
Normal kidney functions occur through numerous cellular processes to maintain body homeostasis. Disturbances in any of these functions can lead to a constellation of abnormalities that may be detrimental to survival.
Chapter 045. Azotemia and Urinary Abnormalities
Normal kidney functions occur through numerous cellular processes to maintain body homeostasis. Disturbances in any of these functions can lead to a constellation of abnormalities that may be detrimental to survival. The clinical manifestations of these disorders will depend upon the pathophysiology of the renal injury and will often be initially identified as a complex of symptoms, abnormal physical findings, and laboratory changes that together make possible the identification of specific syndromes.
Apoptosis or programmed cell death is an inherent part of the development
and homeostasis of multicellular organisms. Dysregulation of apoptosis is
implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases such as cancer, neurodegenera-tive diseases and autoimmune disorders. Tumour necrosis factor-related
apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is able to induce apoptosis by binding
death receptor (DR)4 (TRAIL-R1) and DR5 (TRAIL-R2), which makes
TRAIL an interesting and promising therapeutic target.
Farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfam-ily, has been shown to play pivotal roles in bile acid homeostasis by regu-lating the biosynthesis, conjugation, secretion and absorption of bile acids.
Accumulating data suggest that FXR signaling is involved in the pathogen-esis of liver and metabolic disorders.
Chapter 7 provides knowledge of cardiovascular system. The following will be discussed in this chapter: The blood vessels, the heart, features of the cardiovascular system, the vascular pathways, cardiovascular disorders, homeostasis.