Disorders of nutrition

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  • As for the fi rst edition of this volume, the chapters comprise comprehensive discussions of the some of the major non-infectious disorders of fi nfi sh. It is the second volume of a threevolume series on fi sh diseases and disorders; Volume 1 deals with parasitic diseases and Volume 3 with microbial diseases. Reviews in the three volumes are written by leading international authorities who are actively working in the area or who have contributed greatly to our understanding of specifi c diseases or disorders....

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  • Significantly revised and updated, this second edition of the bestselling Handbook of Nutrition and Food welcomes contributions from several new authors, including Elaine B. Feldman and Johanna Dwyer, notable leaders in nutritional science. Retaining the high level of scientific research, accessible language, and attention to detail of the original, this new edition reflects the changes and developments of the past six years in nutrition research by adding 12 new chapters and tripling the number of referential web addresses. ...

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  • Nutrition is of interest to everyone. For the impoverished, nutrition is an issue of obtaining enough food to survive. For some, it is a health concern in their fight against obesity and diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and degenerative skeletal disorders that accompany this nutritional problem. For others, it is of interest so that they will not be embarrassed wearing their bathing suits.

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  • Efficacy of SNS in Different Disease States Efficacy studies have shown that malnourished patients undergoing major thoracoabdominal surgery benefit from SNS. Critical illness requiring ICU care including major burns, major trauma, severe sepsis, closed head injury, and severe pancreatitis [positive CT scan and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) 10] all benefit by early SNS, as indicated by reduced mortality and morbidity. In critical illness, initiation of SNS within 24 h of injury or ICU admission is associated with a ~50% reduction in mortality.

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  • Disease-Specific Nutritional Support SNS is basically a support therapy and is primary therapy only for the treatment or prevention of malnutrition. Certain conditions require modification of nutritional support because of organ or system impairment. For instance, in nitrogen accumulation disorders, protein intake may need to be reduced. However, in renal disease, except for brief periods of several days, protein intakes should approach requirement levels of at least 0.8 g/kg or higher up to 1.2 g/kg as long as the blood urea nitrogen does not exceed 100 mg/dL.

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  • This book is the second in the series “Nutrition, Brain and Behavior.” The purpose of this series is to provide a forum whereby basic and clinical scientists can share their knowledge and perspectives regarding the role of nutrition in brain function and behavior. The breadth and diversity of the topics covered in this book make it of great interest to specialists working on coffee/caffeine/tea/chocolate research, to nutritionists and physicians, and to anyone interested in obtaining objective information on the consequences of the consumption of coffee, tea, and chocolate on the brain.

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  • In the past few years, the word superfruit has blared into the headlines with alluring fanfare. What began as just a few curious exotic juices in the American market has now evolved into thousands of products in a multibillion-dollar global industry. From the start, the superfruit category has been more about marketing than science. Beverages made from rare, enchanting fruit species marketed with a message of antioxidant benefi ts have beckoned consumers with a seductive array of irresistible health promises....

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  • Second, the prospects for major child health reform will diminish as resources become increasingly scarce.Health care spending that is already hitting the “high- water mark” of 16 percent of U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) and predictably increasing in the face of the next wave of genomics-driven technological innova- tions will be swamped by the approaching “Silver Tsunami.

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  • In Mozambique, Pathfinder is going beyond traditional maternal and child health to ensure the survival of children into adulthood. In addition to their traditional role distributing family planning information and products, CHWs have begun distributing water-purification solution and insecticide-treated bed nets for malaria prevention to pregnant women and mothers of children under five. They are promoting exclusive breast-feeding to the age of six-months, iron and folate supplements for pregnant women, growth monitoring, deworming, and proper nutrition.

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  • Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease Up to 90% of pregnant women experience nausea and vomiting during the first trimester of pregnancy. Occasionally, hyperemesis gravidarum requires hospitalization to prevent dehydration, and sometimes parenteral nutrition is required. Crohn's disease may be associated with exacerbations in the second and third trimesters. Ulcerative colitis is associated with disease exacerbations in the first trimester and during the early postpartum period.

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  • Increasing farm productivity is generally a precondition to improving food security and income in rural areas. This can also relieve pressures to expand farming and grazing into ecologically fragile areas and reduce reliance on unsustainable resource extraction activities. Efforts to raise agricultural production – by improving crop yields, technology, and access to inputs and markets and fostering a shift towards higher value crops – are thus often seen as a means of simultaneously addressing growth, equity and environmental issues in rural areas....

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  • Nutritional counseling and management are becoming important in health care, particularly in the management of a number of chronic conditions and diseases. The publication of this book is timely, because it aims to help physicians and their staffs identify conditions and diseases that can be treated effectively with nutritional intervention, and provides specifics on appropriate counseling and management. The first of the 13 chapters discusses nutritional support for children, with emphasis on premature infants, cystic fibrosis, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia....

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  • Historical records of ancient times reveal that each nation passes through well-defined dietary stages. When the nation is young and struggling to develop, the people are generally poor and the diet is frugal, consisting chiefly of plant foods. As the nation becomes well established and its people prosper, animal foods become more plentiful. Thus, the interest in vegetarian dietaries has waxed and waned through the centuries. Historians have noted that, in times of plenty, interest in such diets has been low, while during periods of famine, the reverse has been true.

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  • This report could not have been completed without the input of many people who are knowl- edgeable about the history and evolution of the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Training Pro- gram. In particular, we wish to thank members of the MCH Training History Focus Group—Dr. Vince Hutchins, Mr. Jim Papai, and Ms. Joann Gephardt—for laying the foundation for this report.

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  • Schools reported the manner in which their nutrition education efforts are coordinated by a person or group. The majority of public schools (61 percent) have no nutrition education coordination, meaning each teacher is responsible for his or her nutrition lessons (table 6). About 9 percent of the schools have one person within the school coordinating nutrition education; 24 percent coordinate using a group or committee; and about 6 percent have someone outside the school, for example from the district, coordinate nutrition education.

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  • People who choose watchful waiting put off having cancer treatment until they have symptoms. Doctors sometimes suggest watchful waiting for people with indolent lymphoma. People with indolent lymphoma may not have problems that require cancer treatment for a long time. Sometimes the tumor may even shrink for a while without therapy. By putting off treatment, they can avoid the side effects of chemotherapy or radiation therapy. If you and your doctor agree that watchful waiting is a good idea, the doctor will check you regularly (every 3 months).

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  • Therapeutic immunosuppression has very broad applications in clinical medicine, ranging from prevention and treatment of organ and bone marrow transplant rejection, management of various autoimmune disorders (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis), skin diseases, allergies and asthma. Whereas traditionally only a small repertoire of immunosuppressive agents was available for clinical use, recent discoveries have significantly increased the number of approved agents, resulting in numerous trials to further evaluate their potential.

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  • However, cellular uptake of aglycones has been suggested to occur in their native form by passive diffusion. Absorbed polyphenols can directly undergo phase II metabolism as phenolic structures are generally unfavorable substrates to the cytochrome P450s (phase I metabolism). At nutritional doses, almost all polyphenols are conjugated to form O- glucuronides, sulfate esters and O-methyl ethers, by glucuronidation, sulfation and methylation, in the gut mucosa and later in the liver or kidney.

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  • This book presents the salient features of optic nerve disorders, encompassing optic neuritis, papilledema, ischemic optic neuropathies, compressive and infi ltrative optic neuropathies, traumatic optic neuropathies, nutritional and toxic optic neuropathies, hereditary optic neuropathies, and optic disc tumors. Chapters 1 to 9 outline key clinical aspects of each of these disorders. Chapter 10 illustrates some newer applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in monitoring optic nerve-related processes causing retinal nerve fi ber layer loss and in ruling out retinal disorders....

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  • (BQ) Phần 1 cuốn sách "Harrison’s principles internal medicine self - assessment and board review" trình bày các nội dung: Introduction to Clinical Madicine, nutrition, oncology and Hamatology, infecders of the Respiratory System, Disorders of the Respiratory System, Disorders of the Kidney and Urinary Tract,... Mời các bạn cùng tham khảo nội dung chi tiết.

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