This book is based upon Medical Physics and Physiological Measurement which we wrote in 1981. That
book had grown in turn out of a booklet which had been used in the Sheffield Department of Medical Physics
and Clinical Engineering for the training of our technical staff. The intention behind our writing had been
to give practical information which would enable the reader to carry out a very wide range of physiological
measurement and treatment techniques which are often grouped under the umbrella titles of medical physics,
clinical engineering and physiological measurement.
CHAPTER 2 8 BASIC CONTROL SYSTEMS DESIGN William J. Palm III Mechanical Engineering Department University of Rhode Island Kingston, Rhode Island
28.1 INTRODUCTION 28.2
28.7.3 28.7.4 28.7.5 28.8
CONTROL SYSTEM STRUCTURE 869 28.2.1 A Standard Diagram 870 28.2.2 Transfer Functions 870 28.2.3 System-Type Number and Error Coefficients 871 TRANSDUCERS AND ERROR DETECTORS 872 28.3.1 Displacement and Velocity Transducers 872 28.3.2 Temperature Transducers 874 28.3.3 Flow Transducers 874 28.3.4 Error Detectors 874 28.3.5 Dynamic Response of Sensors 875 ACTUATORS 28.4.
The field of medical imaging is advancing at a rapid pace. Imaging modalities like
x-ray radiography, x-ray computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, nuclear imaging,
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and optical imaging have been used in biology
and medicine to visualize anatomical structures as large as the lung and liver and
as small as molecules. Ultrasound is considered the most cost-effective among them.
It is used routinely in hospitals and clinics for diagnosing a variety of diseases.