This interpretation of disproportionate impact conforms to various judicial
interpretations. A clear judicial statement regarding the statistical issues was issued by the
Supreme Court in Thornburg v. Gingles, 478 U.S. 30 (1986). While there were separate
concurring opinions, there was no disagreement regarding the statistical problem associated
with the case. At issue was alleged gerrymandering that diluted the voting strength of
minorities across several districts.
Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering
Terrorism, a report released by the National Academies in June 2002,1
articulated the role of science and technology in countering terrorism.
That report included material on the specific role of information technology
(IT). Building on that report as a point of departure, the panel of
experts responsible for the IT material in Making the Nation Safer was
reconvened as the Committee on the Role of Information Technology in
Responding to Terrorism in order to develop the present report....
Most certainly, Latinas are facing a serious health care crisis that threatens to undermine the reproductive health and
overall well-being of themselves, their families and their communities. Despite the growing number of uninsured Latinas
and the signiﬁcant health disparities they face, health policy makers have paid little attention to the reproductive health
needs of Latinas. Against this backdrop, we are also witnessing an onslaught of attacks on the reproductive freedom of
women in this country that will no doubt disproportionately impact Latinas.
The gender gap in each dimension is then quantified
using two types of recent available data: a) published
national statistics and data from international
organizations, and b) survey data of a qualitative nature
from the annual Executive Opinion Survey of the World
Economic Forum. Following, is a brief description of
each of the five categories and the rationale behind
them. Details of the specific variables examined and
their sources may be found in the Appendix.
The primary purpose of this study is to measure the level of disproportionate impact
between credit scores and race/ethnicity, and credit scores and socioeconomic status.
Disproportionate impact is defined as the bivariate relationship between credit scores and
the independent variable of interest, such as race/ethnicity or income. That is, for purposes
of measuring the level of disproportionate impact, no attempt is made to control for possible
confounding variables, or factors that might explain a disproportionate impact should one
The widespread use of credit scores to underwrite and price automobile and
homeowners insurance has generated considerable concern that the practice may
significantly restrict the availability of affordable insurance products to minority and low-
income consumers. However, no existing studies have effectively examined whether credit
scores have a disproportionate negative impact on minorities or other demographic groups,
primarily because of the lack of public access to appropriate data.
This chapter examines the link between Paso del Norte’s air pollution and its
maquiladoras. To what extent are maquiladoras responsible for this pollution? What impacts
does it have on human health? Are the poor disproportionately affected? Unfortunately, little
reliable publicly available data exist to answer these questions. This chapter takes a first step
toward filling this gap by marshalling two types of evidence.
Disparities in outcomes associated with race and ethnicity are well documented for many diseases
and patient populations. Tuberculosis (TB) disproportionately affects economically disadvantaged, racial and ethnic
minority populations. Pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis (PIAT) contributes heavily to the societal burden of
TB. Individual impacts associated with PIAT may vary by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status.
This paper considers the potentially negative impacts of an increasing
deployment of non-congestion-controlled best-effort
traffic on the Internet.1 These negative impacts range from
extreme unfairness against competing TCP traffic to the potential
for congestion collapse. To promote the inclusion of
end-to-end congestion control in the design of future protocols
using best-effort traffic, we argue that router mechanisms are
needed to identify and restrict the bandwidth of selected highbandwidth
best-effort flows in times of congestion.
Defense Department officials have expressed concern about the fact that officers who reach the top ranks of the military tend to come from career fields that are disproportionately occupied by whites. The relative lack of minorities in these fields has a significant impact on the diversity of the senior leadership. The authors examine
Intensified government support is required to
extend the Expanded Programme on Immuniza-
tion (EPI), which currently protects about 80 per-
cent of the children in the developing world
against six major diseases at a cost of about $1.4
billion a year. Expanding EPI coverage to 95 per-
cent of all children would have a significant impact
on children in poor households, who make up a
disproportionately large share of those not yet
reached by the EPI.