Division of costs

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  • (BQ) Chapter 15: Transfer pricing. A common example of decentralized decision making occurs when business units (divisions) within the organization buy goods and services from one another and when each is treated as a profit center (i.e., when each unit manager is evaluated on reported unit profit). When such an exchange occurs, the accounting systems in the two divisions record the transaction as if it were an ordinary sale (purchase) to (from) an external customer (supplier).

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  • We saw in Chapter 12 that a decentralized firm delegates decision-making authority to subordinates. With this delegation of authority comes the risk of managers making decisions based on their individual goals that can be sub-optimal for the organization as a whole. One example of dysfunctional decision-making occurs when business units or divisions within the organization buy goods and services from one another and each unit or division manager is evaluated on reported profits. In this chapter we address this potential problem.

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  • Exporter makes sure the L/C is valid and corresponds to the timetables agreed with the Importer regarding both the delivery of the goods and payments. Another question: can the documents be negotiated or transferred within the term of the L/C? Can the Exporter accept all the restrictions and limitations of the L/C? Are there any impossible conditions (for instance, in contravention of the foreign exchange regime) or wrong details (name of a port which does not exist, etc.)

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  • Information -- or more precisely, better information -- can be viewed much like any other commodity in that it is costly to acquire and provides benefits to the user. The goal is to identify the kinds of situations in which improvements in data or methods are likely to yield the greatest net benefit. From an economic standpoint, information itself has little intrinsic value. Instead, information acquires value when it facilitates optimizing behavior. That is, better information can lead to changes in actions, changes that themselves create value.

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  • The rights of the insured party are NOT effected if it BONA FIDE forgot or had no time to declare to the insurer as per above, or if it gave the insurer a declaration containing wrong information. The right declaration can be filed even after the goods are lost or delivered

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  • The Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture recognises that the trend towards intensification of livestock production in developing countries presents both opportunities and challenges. The potential opportunities are the flow-on benefits to the producers and local economy while the potential challenges are the flow-on costs to the environment, animal health and welfare.

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  • It may be a fair sight in a Roman's eyes, Beric, but nought could be fouler to those of a Briton. To me every one of those blocks of brick and stone weighs down and helps to hold in bondage this land of ours; while that temple they have dared to rear to their gods, in celebration of their having conquered Britain, is an insult and a lie. We are not conquered yet, as they will some day know to their cost. We are silent, we wait, but we do not admit that we are conquered." "I agree with you there. We have never fairly...

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  • The Transaction Finding a market for the goods (market research) Selecting the marketing channels Negotiations Pricing Distribution channels Order Contract Commercial Invoice Commercial Invoice must include (minimum): Payment Terms Mode of Payment Division of Costs Details of Carrier Details of Receiving Party Details of Buyer Other Details For best results use the ECE (Economic Commission for Europe) Standard Commercial Invoice Packing List must include (minimum): Contents of the Packaging (=of the shipment) If more than one package or outer and inner packing – all contents per each pac...

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  • Anything that increases costs of production will tend to increase marginal cost and thus reduce the supply. For example, as wages rise, the supply of goods and services is reduced, because wages are the input price of labor. Labor accounts for about two- thirds of all input costs, and thus wage increases create supply reductions (a higher price is necessary to provide the same quantity) for most goods and services. Costs of materials of course increase the price of goods using those materials. For example, the most important input into the manufacture of gasoline is crude oil,...

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  • Jianchao Wang East Isle Technologies Inc., Setauket, NY 11733, USA Abstract—In this paper, we consider cost-effective designs of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical switching networks for current and future generation communication systems. Based on different target applications: we categorize WDM optical switching networks into two connection models: the wavelength-based model and the fiberlink-based model. Most of existing WDM optical switching networks belong to the first category.

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  • When it comes to finance, American companies appear to be getting a clue. From 1988 to 1996, they reduced the amount of money they spent on basic accounting and financial chores from 2.2 percent of their annual revenues down to 1.4 percent. That's a 36 percent savings. company's finances must be managed. In fact, there isn't a single department, division, work unit, or employee who doesn't come into contact with a company's finances. Assets and liabilities, and revenues and expenses, are affected every time an employee is hired, merchandise is moved, or paperwork is pushed....

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  • The world suffers no shortage of accounting texts. The many I’ve read over the past 25 years have helped me audit, prepare, use, and explain corporate financial statements. Missing in this lettered journey has been a work that provides context for accounting’s six divisive issues: inflation, volatility, intangibles, debt, options, and earnings. A brief history of accounting can fill this void. Students and practitioners study textbooks designed to explain the how’s of accounting.

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  • Dams and particle separation is important in the process of harvesting rice (rice; wheat) and energy intensive. There have been many studies on various parts of the dam to improve your drum beats combine harvesters were introduced in recent years. Research division beating drums beating two types of tangential to the direction tangential feed was made in 2007 with the aim of: increasing particle separation distribution of the dam, the dam reduced energy costs, reduce the impact split ...

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  • Novel generation wireless system is a packet switched wireless system with wide area coverage and high throughput. It is designed to be cost effective and to provide high spectral efficiency . The 4th wireless uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, Ultra Wide Radio Band and millimeter wireless and smart antenna. Highly directive, planar UWB antennas are gaining more and more attention, as required in many novel and important applications.

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  • Interning in the Office of Inspector General provides law students with hands-on experience involving a wide variety of issues and a unique opportunity to obtain exposure to the various divisions and offices of the Commission. Students interning in the Office of Inspector General may be assigned to assist both the audit and investigations units of the Office. Interns working with auditors typically attend interviews, prepare memoranda summarizing those interviews, assist in conducting audit testing, and may also draft portions of audit reports.

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  • How many times have you attempted to change your organization— whether the entity is a team, division, company, government agency, or nonprofit? Like most organizations, yours probably faced severe downsizing in response to the financial crisis of 2008. Reducing personnel, retracting from markets, and scaling down your organization must have presented a difficult leadership challenge. Perhaps in better times you were assigned the task of implementing a new information system, manufacturing procedure, or customer- service process.

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  • Qian, Roland, and Xu (2005) and Roland (2000:56-65) capture the stylized difference of Russian and Chinese coordination in their modeling of U-form and M-form organizations. Soviet, vertically-integrated branch divisions represented U-form structures formed along functional lines, while in China, regionally-decentralized, M- form structures could coordinate activities across all industries in a single region. These decentralized arrangements reduced information costs, facilitated small-scale experimentation, and contributed to China’s increased flexibility.

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  • Social divisions, poverty, and economic crisis led to the French Revolution. Napoleon Bonaparte took power in a coup d'etat and tried to overthrow Europe's old order. After his costly military campaigns, he was defeated and exiled.

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  • I was one of the original divisional quality directors at Motorola chartered with developing, training, and deploying the culture and methods of Six Sigma.We were able to reduce costs, improve efficiencies, and maximize customer satisfaction in all operations. Within the manufacturing operations, we reduced the cost of sales by 30 percent. In administrative and service functions, we reduced cycle times and cost by as much as 90 percent. In 1990 and 1991 our division was used as the internal benchmark for service and administrative quality....

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  • ADC’s Value-Added Module (VAM) System provides the flexibility and functionality to easily incorporate optical components into the network. Optical components, such as wavelength division multiplexers (WDMs) and tap monitors, add capacity and increase reliability with minimal installation cost and time. Wavelength division multiplexers enable the service providers to double the capacity of the existing network without installing new fiber; tap monitors provide easy access to the network for testing and monitoring without interruption of service....

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