The study of DNA advanced human knowledge in a way comparable to the major theories in physics, surpassed only by discoveries such as fire or the number zero. However, it also created conceptual shortcuts, beliefs and misunderstandings that obscure the natural phenomena, hindering its better understanding. The deep conviction that no human knowledge is perfect, but only perfectible, should function as a fair safeguard against scientific dogmatism and enable open discussion. With this aim, this book will offer to its readers 30 chapters on current trends in the field of DNA replication.
The decoy approach against nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) is a useful tool to alter NF-kB dependent gene expression using synthetic oligonucleotides (ODNs) carrying NF-kB speciﬁc cis-elements. Unfortunately, ODNs are not stable and need to be extensively modiﬁed to be used in vivo or ex vivo. We have previously evaluated the possible use of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) as decoy molecules. The backbone of PNAs is composed of N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine units, rendering these molecules resistant to both nucleases and proteases.
Human cells contain two homologs of the yeast RAD23 protein, hHR23A
and hHR23B, which participate in the DNA repair process. hHR23B hou-ses a domain (residues 277–332, called XPCB) that binds specifically and
directly to the xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein (XPC) to initiate
nucleotide excision repair (NER). This domain shares sequence homology
with a heat shock chaperonin-binding motif that is also found in the stress-inducible yeast phosphoprotein STI1.