Forensic DNA Typing charts the progress and development of DNA applied to
criminal forensics, providing vivid demonstrations of the amazing potential of
the method, not only to convict the guilty but also to exonerate the innocent.
John Butler has created a text that caters to all audiences, covering the basics
of DNA structure and function and describing in detail how the techniques are
used. In addition, the extensive use of D.N.A. (Data, Notes, and Application)
Boxes in the text enables the reader to dip in and out as he or she pleases....
Over the last three decades, knowledge on the molecular biology of human cancers has vastly expanded. A host of genes and proteins involved in cancer development and progression have been defined and many mechanisms at the molecular, cellular and even tissue level have been, at least partly, elucidated. Insights have also been gained into the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis by chemical, physical, and biological agents and into inherited susceptibility to cancer. Accordingly, Part I of the book presents many of the molecules and mechanisms generally important in human cancers.
The term DNA sequencing refers to methods for determining the order of the nucleotides
bases adenine,guanine,cytosine and thymine in a molecule of DNA. The first DNA sequence
were obtained by academic researchers,using laboratories methods based on 2- dimensional
chromatography in the early 1970s. By the development of dye based sequencing method
with automated analysis,DNA sequencing has become easier and faster.
Introduction to molecular biology…(…in one hour!!) Stephen Edwards Overview. Overview of the cell Different sizes/functions Organised structure Bacterial genetics are different Eukaryotic cell DNA ontained in the nucleus Arranged in 22.
Developmental biology: The anatomical tradition The Questions of Developmental Biology Anatomical Approaches to Developmental Biology Comparative Embryology Evolutionary Embryology Medical Embryology and Teratology Mathematical Modeling of Development Principles of Development:
The contents of this book focus on the recent investigations in molecular biology
where applications of topology seem to be very stimulating. The volume is
based on the talks and lectures given by participants of the three-month program
“Topology in Condensed Matter”, which was held in the Max Planck Institut
fur Physik komplexer Systeme, Dresden, Germany, 8May–31 July 2002,
under the scientific direction of Professors M. Kl´eman, S. Novikov and myself.
Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. This field overlaps with other areas of biology, particularly with genetics and biochemistry. Molecular biology chiefly concerns itself with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including the interrelationship of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis and learning how these interactions are regulated.
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 80. Cancer Cell Biology and Angiogenesis
Cancer Cell Biology and Angiogenesis: Introduction Two characteristic features define a cancer: unregulated cell growth and tissue invasion/metastasis. Unregulated cell growth without invasion is a feature of benign neoplasms, or new growths. Cancer is a synonym for malignant neoplasm. Cancers of epithelial tissues are called carcinomas; cancers of nonepithelial (mesenchymal) tissues are called sarcomas. Cancers arising from hematopoietic or lymphoid cells are called leukemias or lymphomas.
Telomerase DNA polymerase is unable to replicate the tips of chromosomes, resulting in the loss of DNA at the specialized ends of chromosomes (called telomeres) with each replication cycle. At birth, human telomeres are 15- to 20-kb pairs long and are composed of tandem repeats of a six-nucleotide sequence (TTAGGG) that associate with specialized telomere-binding proteins to form a T-loop structure that protects the ends of chromosomes from being mistakenly recognized as damaged.
Induction of p53 by the DNA damage and oncogene checkpoints.
In response to noxious stimuli, p53 and mdm2 are phosphorylated by the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and related ATR serine/threonine kinases, as well as the immediated downstream checkpoint kinases, Chk1 and Chk2. This causes dissociation of p53 from mdm2, leading to increased p53 protein levels and transcription of genes leading to cell cycle arrest (p21Cip1/Waf1) or apoptosis (e.g., the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members Noxa and Puma).
Targeting BCR-ABL with Imatinib: Proof of Principle The protein product of the Philadelphia chromosome occurs in all patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and in ~30% of patients with adult acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) and encodes the fusion protein Bcr-Abl. Although the c-Abl protooncogene is a nuclear protein whose kinase activity is tightly regulated as a part of the DNA damage response pathway (and actually induces growth arrest), the Bcr-Abl fusion protein is largely cytoplasmic with a constitutively activated tyrosine kinase domain.
DNA fragmentation is a hallmark of apoptosis that occurs in a variety of
cell types; however, it remains unclear whether caspase-3 is required for its
induction. To investigate this, we produced caspase-3 knockout Chinese
hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells and examined the effects of gene knockout
and treatment with caspase-3 inhibitors.
The 3¢-processing of viral DNA extremities is the first step in the integra-tion process catalysed by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 integrase
(IN). This reaction is relatively inefficient and processed DNAs are usually
detectedin vitro under conditions of excess enzyme. Despite such experi-mental conditions, steady-state Michaelis–Menten formalism is often
applied to calculate characteristic equilibrium⁄kinetic constants of IN.
The molecular mechanisms of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system
have been uncovered over the last decade, especially in prokaryotes. The
results obtained for prokaryotic MMR proteins have provided a frame-work for the study of the MMR system in eukaryotic organisms, such as
yeast, mouse and human, because the functions of MMR proteins have
been conserved during evolution from bacteria to humans.
NA helicases are ubiquitous molecular motor proteins
which harness the chemical free energy of ATPhydrolysis to
catalyze the unwinding of energetically stable duplex DNA,
and thus play important roles in nearly all aspects of nucleic
acid metabolism, including replication, repair, recombina-tion, and transcription. They break the hydrogen bonds
between the duplex helix and move unidirectionally along
the bound strand. All helicases are also translocases and
DNA-dependentATPases.Most contain conserved helicase
motifs that act as an engine to power DNA unwinding. ...
T4DNA ligase is an Mg
enzyme that seals DNA nicks in three steps: it covalently
binds AMP,transadenylates the nick phosphate,and cata-lyses formation of the phosphodiester bond releasing AMP.
(BQ) Part 1 book "Principles and techniques of biochemistry and molecular biology" presents the following contents: Basic principles, cell culture techniques, centrifugation, microscopy, molecular biology, bioinformatics and basic techniques, recombinant DNA and genetic analysis, immunochemical techniques.
Activation-induced deaminase (AID) initiates switch recombination and somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes in activated B cells. Compelling evidence now shows that AID travels with RNA polymerase II to deaminate actively transcribed DNA.
reports deposited research
A common mechanism for class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation
In all cells, high-fidelity pathways repair DNA to maintain the integrity of the genome. A handful
For decades, researchers have focused most of their attention on protein-coding genes and proteins. With the completion of the human and mouse genomes and the accumulation of data on the mammalian transcriptome, the focus now shifts to non-coding DNA sequences, RNA-coding genes
The faithful and complete replication of
chromosomes is essential to maintain
genetic stability and prevent the accumulation
of cancer-promoting mutations.
Replication forks are vulnerable to stalling
or collapse as they encounter obstacles on
the DNA template, which can be unrepaired
DNA damage, DNA-bound proteins or
secondary structures. Similarly, chemical
agents like hydroxyurea and aphidicolin
inhibit replication elongation, leading to
fork stalling or collapse.