Xem 1-20 trên 33 kết quả DNA metabolism
  • Since the discovery of the DNA structure researchers have been highly interested in the molecular basis of genome inheritance. This book covers a wide range of aspects and issues related to the field of DNA replication. The association between genome replication, repair and recombination is also addressed, as well as summaries of recent work of the replication cycles of prokaryotic and eukaryotic viruses. The reader will gain an overview of our current understanding of DNA replication and related cellular processes, and useful resources for further reading....

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Lehninger principles of biochemistry" presents the following contents: Bioenergetics and metabolism (principles of bioenergetics; glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway; the metabolism of glycogen in animals,...), information pathways (genes and chromosomes, DNA metabolism, RNA metabolism, protein metabolism,...).

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  • Polymerase Chain Reaction is widely held as one of the most important inventions of the 20th century in molecular biology. Small amounts of the genetic material can now be amplified to be able to a identify, manipulate DNA, detect infectious organisms, including the viruses that cause AIDS, hepatitis, tuberculosis, detect genetic variations, including mutations, in human genes and numerous other tasks.

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  • Glofish is the first transgenic animal approved to be consumed by human in the USA  The insertion of different constructs of GFP into the fish genomes to give different green colors.The idea for recombinant DNA was first proposed by Peter Lobban, a graduate student of Prof. Dale Kaiser in the Biochemistry Department at Stanford University Medical School. The first publications describing the successful production and intracellular replication of recombinant DNA appeared in 1972 and 1973.

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  • DNA helicases are molecularmotor enzymes that use the energy of NTP hydrolysis to separate transiently energetic-ally stable duplex DNA into single strands. They are there-fore essential in nearly all DNA metabolic transactions. They act as essential molecular tools for the cellular machinery. Since the discovery of the first DNA helicase in Escherichia coliin1976, several havebeen isolated fromboth prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems.

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  • “Epigenetics” as introduced by ConradWaddington in 1946, is defined as a set of interactions between genes and the surrounding environment, which determines the phenotype or physical traits in an organism, (Murrell et al., 2005;Waddington, 1942). Initial research focused on genomic regions such as heterochromatin and euchromatin based on dense and relatively loose DNA packing, since these were known to contain inactive and active genes respectively, (Yasuhara et al., 2005).

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  • The production of free radicals (ROS) is an unavoidable consequence of life in an aerobic environment. Free radicals produced from the metabolic activities of oxygen attack biological membranes and lipoproteins via oxidation in a process called lipid perioxidation. This attack damages cells and lipids often in a chain reaction with carbon-based molecules such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in a reaction with molecular oxygen. This creates oxidative stress and damage to tissues. Free radicals also damage chromosomal DNA.

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  • PLANT BIOLOGISTS MAY BE FORGIVEN for taking abiding satisfaction in the fact that Mendel’s classic studies on the role of heritable factors in development were carried out on a flowering plant: the garden pea. The heritable factors that Mendel discovered, which control such characters as flower color, flower position, pod shape, stem length, seed color, and seed shape, came to be called genes. Genes are the DNA sequences that encode the RNA molecules directly involved in making the enzymes and structural proteins of the cell.

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  • NA helicases are ubiquitous molecular motor proteins which harness the chemical free energy of ATPhydrolysis to catalyze the unwinding of energetically stable duplex DNA, and thus play important roles in nearly all aspects of nucleic acid metabolism, including replication, repair, recombina-tion, and transcription. They break the hydrogen bonds between the duplex helix and move unidirectionally along the bound strand. All helicases are also translocases and DNA-dependentATPases.Most contain conserved helicase motifs that act as an engine to power DNA unwinding. ...

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  • DNA of prokaryotes is in a nonequilibrium structural state, characterized as ÔactiveÕ DNA supercoiling. Alterations in this state a€ect many life processes and a homeostatic control of DNA supercoiling has been suggested [Menzel, R. & Gellert, M. (1983) Cell 34, 105±113]. We here report on a new method for quantifying homeostatic control of the high-energy state of in vivo DNA. The method involves making small perturbation in the expression of topoisomerase I, and measuring the e€ect on DNA supercoiling of a reporter plasmid and on the expression of DNA gyrase....

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  • Adequate transport of large proteins that function in the nucleus is indis-pensable for cognate molecular events within this organelle. Selective pro-tein import into the nucleus requires nuclear localization signals (NLS) that are recognized by importin receptors in the cytoplasm.

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  • Replication protein A (RPA) complex has been shown, using bothin vivo and in vitro approaches, to be required for most aspects of eukaryotic DNA metabolism: replication, repair, telomere maintenance and homolo-gous recombination.

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  • Enhancer of rudimentary (ER) is a small protein that has a unique amino acid sequence and structure. Its highly conserved gene has been found in all eukaryotic kingdoms with the exception of fungi. ER was proposed to be involved in the metabolism of pyrimidines and was reported to act as a transcriptional repressor in a cell type-specific manner.

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  • Cellular functions are ultimately linked to metabolic fluxes brought about by thousands of chemical reactions and transport processes. The synthesisof theunderlying enzymes and membrane transporters causes the cell a certaineffort of energyandexternal resources.Considering that those cells should have had a selection advantage during natural evo-lution that enabled them to fulfil vital functions (such as growth, defence against toxic compounds, repair of DNA alterations, etc.)

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  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion mutations accumulate with age in tissues of a variety of species. Although the relatively low calculated abundance of these deletion mutations in whole tissue homogenates led some investigators to suggest that these mutations do not have any physiological impact, their focal and segmental accumulation suggests that they can, and do, accumulate to levels sufficient to affect the metabolism of a tissue.

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  • A severe challenge to the idea that mitochondrial DNA mutations play a major role in the aging process in mammals is that clear loss-of-function mutations accumulate only to very low levels (under 1% of total) in almost any tissue, even by very old age. Their accumulation is punctate: some cells become nearly devoid of wild-type mitochondrial DNA and exhibit no activity for the partly mitochondrially encoded enzyme cytochrome c oxidase. Such cells accumulate in number with aging, suggesting that they survive indefinitely, which is itself paradoxical....

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Lippincott's illustrated Q&A review of biochemistry" presents the following contents: Biochemical compounds, protein structure and function; DNA structure, replication and repair; RNA synthesis; protein synthesis, protein synthesis, molecular medicine and techniques, energy metabolism overview,...

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  • Pyruvate is located at a crucial crossroad of cellular metabolism between the aerobic and anaerobic pathways. Modulation of the fate of pyruvate, in one direction or another, can be important for adaptative response to hypoxia followed by reoxygenation.

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Endocrine physiology" presents the following contents: Carbohydrate metabolism A - Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis; the tricarboxylic acid cycle; carbohydrate metabolism B: Di-, Oligo-, and polysaccharide synthesis and degradation; lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism; nucleotide metabolism, photosynthesis; DNA, RNA, and protein metabolism.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "The big picture: Medical biochemistry" presents the following contents: Amino acids and proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleosides, nucleotides, DNA, and RNA; integrated usmle style questions and answer, enzymes and amino acid protein metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, membranes, DNA/RNA function and protein synthesis.

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