The literature was reviewed and summarized to provide common interpretations of human figure drawings. Basic guidelines for interpreting human figure drawings (i.e., face and head, body, arms and hands, and legs and feet) are presented. Expectations for students at different developmental levels (ages 1 1/2 through adolescence) are identified, and the influence of artistic talent is discussed. Two children's drawings from case studies in a school setting are interpreted.
We present BAYE S UM (for “Bayesian summarization”), a model for sentence extraction in query-focused summarization. BAYE S UM leverages the common case in which multiple documents are relevant to a single query. Using these documents as reinforcement for query terms, BAYE S UM is not afﬂicted by the paucity of information in short queries. We show that approximate inference in BAYE S UM is possible on large data sets and results in a stateof-the-art summarization system.
Sentence Clustering is often used as a ﬁrst step in Multi-Document Summarization (MDS) to ﬁnd redundant information. All the same there is no gold standard available. This paper describes the creation of a gold standard for sentence clustering from DUC document sets. The procedure of building the gold standard and the guidelines which were given to six human judges are described. The most widely used and promising evaluation measures are presented and discussed. regenerated from all/some sentences in a cluster (Barzilay and McKeown, 2005). ...
Present Continuous For Future Use Talking about the future in English Many students use only will or going to in order to talk about the future. However, it’s very common to use the present continuous to talk about the future, in the case of arrangements that are planned: + I’m having dinner with friends tonight. + She’s meeting David at the train station tomorrow. - He isn’t coming to the party. - We aren’t seeing our family this weekend.
This publication presents design examples covering various machines, vehicles and equipment having one thing in common: rolling bearings. For this reason the brief texts concentrate on the rolling bearing aspects of the applications. The operation of the machine allows conclusions to be drawn about the operating conditions which dictate the bearing type and design, the size and arrangement, fits, lubrication and sealing. Important rolling bearing engineering terms are printed in italics. At the end of this publication they are summarized and explained in a...
CHAPTER 3 The Six Basic Managerial Options.In this chapter we will start learning to use the binomial option model in practice. The initial applications focus on the valuation of the six basic managerial options that are summarized along with their real option counterparts in Figure 3.1.
Notations and Mathematical Preliminaries
1.1 NOTATIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS The notations and abbreviations used in the book are summarized here for ease of reference. D (α) f = f α (t) := d f α (t)/dt α f¯—complex conjugate of f ∞ fˆ := −∞ f (t)e−iωt dt, Fourier transform of f (t) ∞ 1 f (t) := 2π −∞ fˆ(ω)eiωt dω, inverse Fourier transform of fˆ(ω) f —norm of a function f ∗ g—convolution f, h := f (t)h(t) dt, inner product f n = O(n)-order of n, ∃C such that f n ≤ Cn C—complex N —nonnegative integers R—real number...
Transmission Lines and Components
In this chapter, basic concepts and design equations for microstrip lines, coupled microstrip lines, discontinuities, and components useful for design of filters are briefly described. Though comprehensive treatments of these topics can be found in the open literature, they are summarized here for easy reference.
Gaps in knowledge were detected in the
course of this review. These are summarized
in the following section, which also
suggests directions for further investigation.
Further study and regular dietary
monitoring are needed in order to know
more about food consumption habits in
seniors. These investigations must be
adapted to the reality of targeted aging
populations using precise measurements,
diverse approaches, appropriate methods
and accurate dietary assessment tools to
reflect the great heterogeneity typical of
The Effects of Gold on Plants and Animals
Lethal and sublethal effects of Au0, Au+, and Au+3 are summarized for aquatic organisms and laboratory mammals. Gold accumulations from solution are documented for microorganisms and other living resources under various physicochemical conditions.
This section summarizes lethal and sublethal effects of Au+ and Au+3 on aquatic microorganisms, plants, ﬁshes, and amphibians. 6.1.1 Monovalent Gold
Monovalent gold is toxic to aquatic biota at comparatively elevated concentrations of 7.
The IDB’s measures of the impact of the funds and the outstanding is-
sues and conclusions from the IDB study are summarized here.
Despite the large amount of resources that the IDB and the World Bank
have been lending to the funds, their scope is small. Only one fund in
the region, Nicaragua, spends as much as 1 percent of the gross domes-
tic product (GDP) in its fund; only three countries—Chile, Panama, and
Uruguay—spend more than US$15 per year per poor person. And the
poor countries on average spend less than US$10 a year.
Another service is the grading of products by recognized standards of quality. Grading helps
farmers get fair prices for their products. It also permits commercial buyers to make purchases of
such products as milk, butter, eggs, and meat on a basis of quality and price.
Wholesaling and retailing, two essential services, are performed on the widest scale possible.
They reach every community.
Disorders of the Sense of Smell These are caused by conditions that interfere with the access of the odorant to the olfactory neuroepithelium (transport loss), injure the receptor region (sensory loss), or damage central olfactory pathways (neural loss). Currently no clinical tests exist to differentiate these different types of olfactory losses. Fortunately, the history of the disease provides important clues to the cause.
A number of immunologically mediated skin diseases and immunologically mediated systemic disorders with cutaneous manifestations are now recognized as distinct entities with consistent clinical, histologic, and immunopathologic findings. Many of these disorders are due to autoimmune mechanisms. Clinically, they are characterized by morbidity (pain, pruritus, disfigurement) and in some instances by mortality (largely due to loss of epidermal barrier function and/or secondary infection).
And although the marketing function masquerades
under many names within nonprofit organizations—
Communications, Advancement, External Affairs,
Public Relations, or Brand Management — the primary
objectives are pretty much the same: to define and
then defend an organization’s position, and move it
closer to success in its mission.
The ultrasonic transducer behaves as a ‘speaker’ in send mode (from 40 to 50
kHz). The electronics of the ultrasonic transducer produces electrical pulses
to set the piezoceramic element in motion (conversion of electrical energy to
mechanical energy). The piezoceramic element is located on the inside of the
outer diaphragm. The outer diaphragm vibrates in line with the resonance
frequency and produces ultrasonic waves.
The short pulse sequences hit an obstacle and are bounced back (reflected).
We design a class of submodular functions meant for document summarization tasks. These functions each combine two terms, one which encourages the summary to be representative of the corpus, and the other which positively rewards diversity. Critically, our functions are monotone nondecreasing and submodular, which means that an efﬁcient scalable greedy optimization scheme has a constant factor guarantee of optimality.
Statistical approaches to automatic text summarization based on term frequency continue to perform on par with more complex summarization methods. To compute useful frequency statistics, however, the semantically important words must be separated from the low-content function words. The standard approach of using an a priori stopword list tends to result in both undercoverage, where syntactical words are seen as semantically relevant, and overcoverage, where words related to content are ignored. ...
The GDA (Global Document Annotation) project proposes a tag set which allows machines to automatically infer the underlying semantic/pragmatic structure of documents. Its objectives are to promote development and spread of N L P / A I applications to render GDA-tagged documents versatile and intelligent contents, which should nmtivate W W W (World Wide Web) users to tag their documents as part of content authoring.