Projection methods are developed along two lines: perspective and parallel. Projection theory comprises the principles used to represent graphically 3-D objects and structures on 2-D media Drawing more than one face of an object by moving your line of sight relative to the object helps in understanding the 3-D form. A line of sight is an imaginary ray of light between an observer's eye and the object.
The chapter describes how to create one-, two-, and threeview sketches with traditional tools and CAD. Also described are standard practices for representing edges, curves, holes, tangencies, and fillets and rounds. The foundation of multiviews is orthographic projection, based on parallel lines of sight and mutually perpendicular views. Also introduced in this chapter are visualization techniques that can be used to help create and interpret multiviews.
Muterials science emerged in USA, some time in thc carly 1950s. That phrase
denoted a new scientific concept, born out of metallurgy, and this book is devoted to
the emergence, development and consequences of that concept, in the US and
elsewhere. Just who first coined the phrase is not known, but it is clear that by 1956
a number of senior research scientists had acquired the habit of using it.
The Story of Risk in the
Hundred Acre Wood
One can draw parallels by looking at the
characters in the Winnie the Pooh stories. Some
people are Piglets who worry, worry, worry and
want to take no risks whatsoever. Others are
Eyores who are gloomy and resigned to the worst
possible thing happening, so why fight it. And then
some are utterly confident and wise in their view
that everything is under control and that nothing
bad could possibly happen in their organization –
clearly Owl – until their house blows down.
To me, workflow engines such as Microsoft BizTalk always seemed like a really expensive
thing that I didn't need for many projects. I always thought, “How hard can it be to actually
code the logic you draw on the screen?” As a result, I spent a lot of time not learning what a
workflow engine could do for me and, instead, lived with “just code.” Still, I was intrigued and
would bug my friends about what they saw as the value of BizTalk. They would usually get me
excited enough to try installing the product and learning how it worked. Every time I tried to
Steel Bridge Construction
Figure 45.39 Manufacturing facility for production of shop-fabricated parallel-wire strands (PWS). Prior to 1966, parallel-wire suspension bridge cables had to be constructed wire-by-wire in the ﬁeld using the aerial spinning procedure developed by John Roebling in the mid-19th century (refer to Figures 45.25 and 45.26). In the early 1960s a major U.S. steelwork contractor originated and developed a procedure for manufacturing and reeling parallelwire strands, as shown in these patent drawings. A PWS can contain up to 127 wires (see Figures 45.45 and 45.46).
This note aims to encourage operations managers and staff
not only to give priority to project implementation performance
but also to balance it with sustainable institutional capacity
development beyond the project. To that end, existing country
institutions should be the “default” mode, and PIUs—especially
parallel “stand-alone” PIUs—should be phased out. This note
reflects lessons learned and draws on existing good practices in the
expectation that they can become the rule rather than the
The goal of a system approach to vehicle design is to deﬁne the technical speciﬁcations of each component, in such a way that the vehicle, as a whole, performs its functions according to assigned procedures and objectives. By technical speciﬁcations, we mean a set of physical measurements that deﬁne each part, completely without the use of detailed drawings.
Resolution can be as high as 400 X 800 dpi, with gray scales ranging from 16-128 values. These are medium- to high-throughput devices, producing complex images in about a minute. On-board computing facilities, such as RISC processors and fast hard disk storage mechanisms, contribute to rapid drawing and processing speeds. Expansion slots accommodate interface cards for LANs or parallel ports. InkJet Plotter. InkJet plotters and printers fire tiny ink droplets at paper or a similar medium from minute nozzles in the printing head. H...
On the morning of October 6, 1829, there began at Rainhill, in England, a contest without parallel in either sport or industry. There were four entries: Braithwaite and Ericsson's Novelty. Timothy Hackworth's Sans-pareil. Stephenson and Booth's Rocket. Burstall's Perseverance.
.These were neither race-horses nor stagecoaches, but rival types of the newly invented steam locomotive. To win the £500 prize offered, the successful engine, if weighing six tons, must be able to draw a load of twenty tons at ten miles an hour, and to cover at least seventy miles a day.
Finally, international (foreign currency) credit can also put upward pressure on the real
exchange rate, as borrowers exchange foreign for domestic currency for the purchase of
domestic goods or assets. With a fixed exchange rate (or within a currency area), real
exchange rate appreciation can take the form of relatively rapid inflation. For a country with
an independent currency, real exchange rate appreciation can result from either nominal
appreciation or relatively rapid inflation.
Rapid expansion in international credit bears watching because, in many boom-bust credit
cycles in the past, such credit tended to grow faster than overall credit during the boom.5
We illustrate this broad finding with data from several European countries that have suffered
credit booms and busts since 2000. Then, we draw a parallel with countries that were caught
up in the Asian financial crisis of the late 1990s.
By international credit, we refer to three components of total bank credit, the first two of
which are types of cross-border credit.
Architects have been drawing digitally for
nearly thirty years. CAD programs have made two
dimensional drawing efficient, easy to edit, and, with
a little practice, simple to do. Yet for many years, as
the process of making drawings steadily shifted from
being analog to digital, the design of buildings did
not really reflect the change. CAD replaced drawing
with a parallel rule and lead pointer, but buildings
looked pretty much the same. This is perhaps not
so surprising-one form of two-dimensional
representation simply replaced another.
A good example of this merging and perceptual
elevation is Dunescape, the project that won MoMAI
P.S.l's Young Architects Program the year before
Massie's Playa Urbana/Urban Beach. Designed
and built by by SHoP Architects, Dunescape is an
architecturalized landscape built completely as
a series of parallel, stacked dimensional lumber.
While manual labor was required to cut, assemble,
and fasten the pieces in the actual construction, the
methodology was completely digitally driven.