Assigned to the environment, external actors are mostly condensed under abstract definitions
of heterogeneity, dynamism, or hostility (Papadakis et al., 1998). If addressed directly, current
research frequently employs cross-sectional content study designs that measure their impact
on different dependent variables, such as: corporate strategy (Ring and Perry, 1985; Zajac and
Shortell, 1989; Rugman and Verbeke, 1998); innovativeness (Marcus, 1981; Marcus, 1988);
diversification (Russo, 1992; Kashlak and Joshi, 1994; Matsusaka, 1996); or organizational
design (Dickie, 1984).