Drought environments

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  • Drought Management and Planning for Water Resources Copyright 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC .Drought Management and Planning for Water Resources Edited by Joaquín Andreu Giuseppe Rossi Federico Vagliasindi Alicia Vela Boca Raton London New York A CRC title, part of the Taylor & Francis imprint, a member of the Taylor & Francis Group, the academic division of T&F Informa plc. Copyright 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC .

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  • When I began my professional career at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln in 1979, I intended to direct my research and outreach program at the emerging field of climate impact science. It was fortuitous that a large portion of the United States, including the Great Plains, Upper Midwest, and Pacific Northwest, had recently come out of an intense but somewhat short-lived drought during 1976-1977.

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  • Freshwater sources and oceans have an amazing natural ability to break down some waste materials, but not in the quantities discarded by today' s society. The overload that results eventually puts the ecosystem out of balance. Sometimes nature itself can create these imbalances. But most often our waterways are being polluted by municipal, agricultural and industrial wastes, including many toxic synthetic chemicals which cannot be broken down at all by natural processes.

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  • Television has attracted young viewers since broadcasting be- gan in the 1940s. Concerns about its effects on the cognitive devel- opment of young children emerged almost immediately and have been fueled by academic research showing a negative association between early-childhood television viewing and later academic achievement. 1 These findings have contributed to a belief among the vast majority of pediatricians that television has “negative effects on brain development” of children below age five (Gentile et al. 2004).

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  • Previous World Health Organization studies have examined the aggregate disease burden attributed to key environmental risks globally and regionally, quantifying the amount of death and disease caused by factors such as unsafe drinking-water and sanitation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Building from that experience, this present study examines how specific diseases and injuries are impacted by environmental risks, and which regions and populations are most vulnerable to environmentally-mediated diseases and injuries.

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  • Global Scaling Up Handwashing is a Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) project focused on learning how to apply innovative promotional approaches to behavior change to generate widespread and sustained improvements in handwashing with soap at scale among women of reproductive age (ages 15-49) and primary school-aged children (ages 5-9). The project is being implemented by local and national governments with technical support from WSP. For more information, please visit www.wsp.org/scalinguphandwashing.

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  • Over the past decade, our understanding of plant adaptation to environmental stress, including both constitutive and inducible determinants, has grown con- siderably. This book focuses on stress caused by the inanimate components of the environment associated with climatic, edaphic and physiographic factors that substantially limit plant growth and survival. Categorically these are abiotic stresses, which include drought, salinity, non-optimal temperatures and poor soil nutrition.

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  • Abiotic stresses are serious threats to agriculture and the environment which have been exa‐ cerbated in the current century by global warming and industrialization. According to FAO statistics, more than 800 million hectares of land throughout the world are currently salt-af‐ fected, including both saline and sodic soils equating to more than 6% of the world’s total land area. Continuing salinization of arable land is expected to have overwhelming global impact, resulting in a 30% loss of agricultural land over the next 25 years and up to 50% loss by 2050.

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  • We report the results of experiments on economic decisions with two populations, one of healthy elderly individuals (average age 82) and one of younger students (average age 20). We examine confidence, decisions under uncertainty, differences between willingness to pay and willingness to accept and the theory of mind (strategic thinking). Our findings indicate that the older adults’ decision behavior is similar to that of young adults, contrary to the notion that economic decision making is impaired with age.

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  • Hydrogen peroxide is particularly effective when it reacts with ferrous iron (Fe2+ ) to produce Fenton's Reagent. Ferrous iron may be naturally present in the subsurface soils and/or groundwater, or it can be added as a catalyst solution together with the hydrogen peroxide to produce this aggressive chemical reaction. Hydrogen peroxide in the presence of ferrous iron (Fe2+ ) reacts to form hydroxyl radicals (OH•), ferric iron (Fe3+ ), and hydroxyl ions (OH- ). The hydroxyl ions are very powerful oxidizers, and react particularly with organic compounds.

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  • This study investigated the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of the bamboo species Phyllostachys pubescens and its utilization potential to manufacture medium density fiberboard (MDF). The result showed holocellulose and alpha-cellulose content increased from the base to the top portion. There was no significant variation in Klason lignin content or ash content from the base to the top portion of the bamboo. The outer layer had the highest holocellulose, alpha cellulose, and Klason lignin contents and the lowest extractive and ash contents.

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  • Kenyan’s livelihoods are closely linked to their access to natural resources. As our population increases and environmental quality continues to decline, there is an increased risk of social and economic destabilization, which will have signifi cant impacts on overall national security. Rural people are among the most vulnerable and insecure in terms of poverty, health, food security, economic losses, and confl icts resulting from competitive access to natural resources, among other factors....

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  • This is a frightening development. There are traces within you – or, depending on your circumstances and exposures, more than traces – of several hundred man-made chemicals. Many are harmless (or at least are so far thought to be). Others, however, may cause cancer and damage the nervous systems, reproductive systems, immune systems, or livers of animals. Mounting scientific evidence is confirming long-term suspicions that they do the same to human beings.

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  • But with other POPs the transition to safer alternatives will require more effort. Alternatives may be more expensive and their manufacture and use more complicated. That could put developing countries in an awkward spot – struggling from day to day, the world's poor tend to use what they can afford and what is available. So it is not enough for the Convention simply to say No to its target list of POPs: It must also help governments find a way to say Yes to replacement solutions. Take the case of DDT.

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  • Organic milk production systems rely on ecologically based practices that virtually prohibit the use of antibiotics and hormones in the cow herd and the use of synthetic chemicals in the production of cattle feed. Organic milk production systems also attempt to accommodate the animals’ natural nutritional and behavioral requirements, for example ensuring that dairy cows have access to pasture (Greene and Kremen).

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  • The nature of environmental challenges has changed considerably in recent decades. Nonetheless, the global nature of environmental problems has long been known, as issues such as pollution, loss of biodiversity, global warming, ozone depletion and tropical deforestation do not respect international borders. One can argue, however, that it is only in recent years that these problems have become widespread matters of concern among the general public. The issue of climate change was at the forefront of the debate on global environmental problems in 2007.

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  • Under the SRA and cuts specified in the 2008 farm bill, the reimbursement rate for A&O expenses averaged 18% of total premiums in 2009. 16 This means that for every $100 in premiums collected, the companies receive a reimbursement of $18 from the federal government. The reimbursement rate varies by insurance product, depending on whether it is for a yield-based or a revenue insurance product. The SRA places a maximum for A&O reimbursements at $1.3 billion per year (adjusted annually for inflation) and a minimum at $1.1 billion.

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  • Those alarmed at current health care costs and nostalgic for those of times gone by generally fail to appreciate that policy makers in the 1920s considered health care too costly and were concerned that the majority of American households lacked access to it. As late as 1910, “the cost of health care treatment was considered a minor problem compared to the loss of wages due to sickness for most workers.” 1 In the early 1900s, patients either lived or died.

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  • For the past seven years, Apple has been publishing reports on the audits we perform in our supply chain. We do this because we believe in honestly sharing our findings—the good and the bad. We’re fixing problems and tackling issues that our entire industry faces, such as excessive work hours and underage labor. We’re going deeper into the supply chain than any other company we know of, and we’re reporting at a level of detail that is unparalleled in our industry.

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  • Changing climate and rainfall patterns are expected to have significant impacts on agricultural productivity, especially in arid and semi‐arid regions that are already marginal for agriculture. Most climate modeling scenarios indicate that the dry lands of West and Central Asia and North Africa, for instance, will be severely affected by droughts and high temperatures in the years to come. This could lead to land degradation and agricultural expansion.

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