Drought in annual

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  • Contraceptive use accounts for a substantial portion of the variation in observed fertility rates (others include age of marriage, abortion rates, post- partum amenorrhea and abstinence, and occurrence of marital separations). Although there have been dramatic increases in the use of family planning services, unmet need for family planning remains very high in low-prevalence regions.

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  • Coverage levels that are higher than CAT are called “buy-up” or “additional” coverage. 11 For an additional premium paid by the producer, and partially subsidized by the government, a producer can “buy up” the 50/55 catastrophic coverage to any equivalent level of coverage between 50/100 and 75/100 (i.e., up to 75% of “normal” crop yield and 100% of the estimated market price). In limited areas, production can be insured up to the 85/100 level of coverage. APH policies account for more than 90% of yield-based policies sold.

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  • Moral virtues or permanent attitudes and interior strength for moral behavior. Among these virtues, those which have special relevance to accounting are fairness, integrity, truthfulness, honesty, loyalty, faithfulness, trustworthiness, service to the common good, gratitude and benevolence. Courage, perseverance, competence, diligence, professional will, humility, and other self-mastering virtues which help to defeat inner resistance to act as one should. Practical wisdom, as has been said, provides capacity to perceive the right means for each virtue.

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  • A great deal of work has already been done to define curriculum-level outcomes/ competences for medical education. Some well-known examples are “Tomorrow’s Doctors” (UK General Medical Council, 2003); the “Scottish Doctor” document (Scottish Deans Medical Curriculum Group, 2002); the Global Minimum Essential Requirements (Institute for International Medical Education, 2005) ; guidance issued by the Association of American Medical Colleges (1998); and the CANMEDS Competency Framework, designed primarily for postgraduate medical training (Frank JR, 2005).

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  • A nested case-control study was undertaken within a cohort of HIV-infected individuals, attended at two HIV referral centers, in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Delay in initiating treatment for TB was defined as the period of time, in days, which was greater than the median value between the onset of cough and initiating treatment for TB. The study analyzed biological, clinical, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors as well as those related to HIV and TB infection, potentially associated to delay. The odds ratios were estimated with the respective confidence intervals and p-values....

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  • There is no other academic degree which is ranked and analyzed by so many publications and organizations as the MBA. While the most well-known rankings – US News and BusinessWeek – have been published for more than 10 years, new rankings from the Financial Times, Forbes and the Wall Street Journal have come out recently. US News is generally considered the best ranking, as their system is the most transparent, and their rankings always come closest to peoples’ common sense perception of relative prestige.

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  • Under the Pharmaceutical Zero-for-Zero Initiative, which entered into force in 1995, the United States and its major trading partners eliminated tariffs on many pharmaceuticals, their derivatives, and certain chemical intermediates used to make pharmaceuticals. The U.S. list of pharmaceutical products and chemical intermediates that are eligible for duty- free treatment under the agreement is presented in the Pharmaceutical Appendix to the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States.

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  • As rates of deforestation and land degradation, and losses of biodiversity and ecosystem services, continue to rise globally, the international community is faced with the challenge of finding land use interventions that can mitigate or reduce the impact of these environmental issues. Agroforestry, the integration of trees in farming systems, has the potential for providing rural livelihoods and habitats for species outside formally protected lands, connecting nature reserves, and alleviating resourceuse pressure on conservation areas.

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  • Many visual devices and gadgets preceded cinema, too many to list here in detail. A widespread and well-known one was the camera obscura, first constructed in 1645, which projected views in a dark room, for painters. Around the same time Anastasius Kircher built a special room to project images with mirrors, which looked somewhat like a cinema. A specialised building with many people using specialised equipment was necessary to project the images.

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  • But with other POPs the transition to safer alternatives will require more effort. Alternatives may be more expensive and their manufacture and use more complicated. That could put developing countries in an awkward spot – struggling from day to day, the world's poor tend to use what they can afford and what is available. So it is not enough for the Convention simply to say No to its target list of POPs: It must also help governments find a way to say Yes to replacement solutions. Take the case of DDT.

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  • The nature of environmental challenges has changed considerably in recent decades. Nonetheless, the global nature of environmental problems has long been known, as issues such as pollution, loss of biodiversity, global warming, ozone depletion and tropical deforestation do not respect international borders. One can argue, however, that it is only in recent years that these problems have become widespread matters of concern among the general public. The issue of climate change was at the forefront of the debate on global environmental problems in 2007.

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  • By 1945 Blue Cross had captured 59% of the health insurance market. The idea of prepaid health insurance was solidified on the American landscape in 1954, when the Internal Revenue Code codified the deductibility of health insurance payments. The employer deduction significantly reduced the cost of health insurance for consumers eligi- ble for an employer-provided group plan. The federal government cast the Blue Cross Blue Shield approach in regulatory concrete in 1965 when Congress passed the Medicare and Medicaid programs.

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  • Real estate is valued for its cash flow, both its operating cash flow during the time that you own the property and its likely net sale proceeds when you go to sell the property at some time in the future. Since real estate is purchased today based on its ability to produce cash flow in the future, tools are needed which help calculate the present value of future cash flows. These tools are readily available, are discussed in Tool Kits #2 and #3, and involve the concept of “capitalization”. All capitalization tools convert future income...

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  • The use of the Internet for terrorist purposes is a rapidly growing phenomenon, requiring a proactive and coordinated response from Member States. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) plays a key role in providing assistance to Member States, in furtherance of its mandate to strengthen the capacity of national criminal justice systems to implement the provisions of the international legal instruments against terrorism, and does so in compliance with the principles of rule of law and international human rights standards.

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  • A useful aspect of freshwater sponge biology, particularly for the purposes of an undergraduate lab module, is the fact that they enter diapause as small gemmules. Gemmules are overwintering balls that are produced in the late summer/early fall by the adult sponge. They are the size of the period at the end of this sentence. Adult tissue disintegrates around the gemmule during the winter, and a new sponge emerges from the gemmules in the spring. The newly developing sponge exits the gemmule from a micropyle, and then quickly spreads around the gemmule. In a...

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  • Sometimes there’s a temptation to advertise a collector vehicle in a local newspaper. But for the most part, any perceived convenience or economy is overshadowed by a small number of potential buyers. A national or inter- national ad will greatly increase your chances of getting top dollar for your car. Print ads have long since ceased to be your only viable option for selling a collector vehicle. The Internet ac- counts for such a large portion of the marketplace for any product that you avoid it at your peril.

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  • Our study contributes to a large literature on the cognitive effects of television,most of which identifies the effect of television using cross-sectional variation in children’s viewing intensity. 5 It also contributes to a growing economic literature on the effects of media on children (Dahl and DellaVigna 2006), and on the effects of mass media more generally (see, for example, Djankov et al. [2003]; Gentzkow and Shapiro [2004, 2006]; Stromberg [2004]; Gentzkow [2006]; Olken [2006]; and DellaVigna and Kaplan [2007]). The remainder of the paper is organized as follows.

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  • Access to housing is dependent on the cost of housing in relation to household income. The availability of reasonable housing finance and some targeted subsi- dies is crucial to attain the objectives of the housing policy, especially in a free market setting. Ever since 1946 the Norwegian State Housing Bank has been the government’s main instrument for implementing nati- onal housing policy, and it still remains so half a century later. In recent years, loans and grants through the Housing Bank have increasingly targeted groups that have difficulties in the housing market.

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  • In these ongoing negotiations, three main groupings have emerged. A cautious group comprising European and other Northern countries promotes the maintenance of the current concept embodied in the AoA and to take account of non-trade concerns (NTCs) in the further liberalization process. The ambitious camp of net-food exporters such as Cairns Group countries and the United States call for significant progress in market access and the elimination of both export subsidies and trade distortive domestic support.

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  • On the theory side, research has proceeded along two distinct fronts. First, one needs to explain what prevents rational arbitrageurs from eliminating these and other predictable patterns in returns. Work in this “limits to arbitrage” vein has focused on the risks and market frictions that arbitrageurs face. These include simple transactional impediments, like short-selling constraints, as well as a variety of other complications.

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