Drug absorption

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Medical pharmacology at a glance" presents the following contents: Principles of drug action, drug absorption, distribution and excretion, drug metabolism, local anaesthetics, autonomic nervous system, autonomic drugs acting at cholinergic synapses, drugs acting on the sympathetic system, ocular pharmacology,... and other contents.

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  • Drugs for the Treatment of Peptic Ulcers cipitated antacid or, phosphate depletion of the body with excessive intake of Al(OH)3. Na+ ions remain in solution even in the presence of HCO3–-rich pancreatic secretions and are subject to absorption, like HCO3–. Because of the uptake of Na+, use of NaHCO3 must be avoided in conditions requiring restriction of NaCl intake, such as hypertension, cardiac failure, and edema. Since food has a buffering effect, antacids are taken between meals (e.g., 1 and 3 h after meals and at bedtime). Nonabsorbable antacids are preferred.

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  • Five years have passed since the first edition of Principles of Clinical Pharmacology was published. The second edition remains focused on the principles underlying the clinical use and contemporary development of pharmaceuticals. However, recent advances in the areas of pharmacogenetics, membrane transport, and biotechnology and in our understanding of the pathways of drug metabolism, mechanisms of enzyme induction, and adverse drug reactions have warranted the preparation of this new edition.

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  • In a certain sense, the field of drug metabolism (DM) is standing still. More specifically, the basic experiment of drug metabolism (i.e., administering a new drug to an animal or human and determining the structures, amounts, and disposition of the metabolites) has changed very little over a period of decades. Remarkably, the experimental design and resulting data set from a typical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) study conducted today would be instantly recognized and understood by DM scientists from 50 years ago.

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  • Pharmacokinetics describes, in a quantitative manner, the passage of drugs through the body. A series of distinctive parameters such as bioavailability, volume of distribution and clearance are used to describe: --The rate and extent of drug absorption into the blood stream The rate and extent of drug movement out of blood into the tissues The rate of drug removal from the body These parameters can then be used to predict the blood concentration of drug that will arise with any given dosage regime. A diverse range of students will have some exposure to PKs....

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  • Great efficiencies have been achieved in the drug discovery process as a result of technological advances in target identification, high-throughput screening, high-throughput organic synthesis, just-in-time in vitro ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion), and early pharmacokinetic screening of drug leads. These advances, spanning target selection all the way through to clinical candidate selection, have placed greater and greater demands on the analytical community to develop robust high-throughput methods.

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  • Capital market development in Brazil is a key policy issue going forward to foster savings, investment and absorptive capacity in a context of prospects for sizable capital flows in the medium term. During the last decade, Brazil has achieved substantial progress in capital market development. The menu of available financial instruments has been expanded, market infrastructure has been reformed and strengthened, and a diversified investor base has been built.

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  • This book is written for the practicing pharmaceutical scientist involved in absorption–distribution–metabolism–excretion (ADME) measurements who needs to communicate with medicinal chemists persuasively, so that newly synthesized molecules will be more ‘‘drug-like.’’ ADME is all about ‘‘a day in the life of a drug molecule’’ (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion).

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  • Absorption of light (W or visible) by the ground state of a molecule (So) generates electronically excited states, either directly (the singlet states) or after intersystem crossing from the singlet manifold (the triplet states). Alternatively, triplet states may be generated by energy transfer from another excited state (a sensitiser). In both multiplicities, very fast internal conversion leads to the lowest states (S1 and TI respectively). These states, although still quite short lived (typical lifetime 610-8 s for S1 and ...

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  • Chapter 16 - Pharmacology and drug calculations. In this chapter, you will: Gain understanding of what is meant by the terms pharmacology, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics; learn about the stages of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of medication; understand the importance of careful prescribing for older patients; understand the importance of patient education and concordance in provision of medications;....

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Pharmacology for anaesthesia and intensive care" presents the following contents: Basic principles (Drug passage across the cell membrane, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, drug action,...), core drugs in anaesthetic practice (general anaesthetic agents, aeneral anaesthetic agents, local anaesthetics,...)

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  • Distribution in the Body proceeds rapidly, because the absorbing surface is greatly enlarged due to the formation of the epithelial brush border (submicroscopic foldings of the plasmalemma). The absorbability of a drug is characterized by the absorption quotient, that is, the amount absorbed divided by the amount in the gut available for absorption. In the respiratory tract, cilia-bearing epithelial cells are also joined on the luminal side by zonulae occludentes, so that the bronchial space and the interstitium are separated by a continuous phospholipid barrier.

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  • The absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of a drug all involve its passage across cell membranes. Mechanisms by which drugs cross membranes and the physicochemical properties of molecules and membranes that influence this transfer are, therefore, important. The determining characteristics of a drug are its molecular size and shape, degree of ionization, relative lipid solubility of its ionized and nonionized forms, and its binding to tissue proteins.

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  • B12a; exchange of -CN for -OH group). Adverse effects, in the form of hypersensitivity reactions, are very rare. Folic Acid (B). Leafy vegetables and liver are rich in folic acid (FA). The minimal requirement is approx. 50 µg/d. Polyglutamine-FA in food is hydrolyzed to monoglutamine-FA prior to being absorbed. FA is heat labile. Causes of deficiency include: insufficient intake, malabsorption in gastrointestinal diseases, increased requirements during pregnancy.

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  • Peripherally Acting Medications Orlistat (Xenical) is a synthetic hydrogenated derivative of a naturally occurring lipase inhibitor, lipostatin, produced by the mold Streptomyces toxytricini. Orlistat is a potent, slowly reversible inhibitor of pancreatic, gastric, and carboxylester lipases and phospholipase A2, which are required for the hydrolysis of dietary fat into fatty acids and monoacylglycerols. The drug acts in the lumen of the stomach and small intestine by forming a covalent bond with the active site of these lipases.

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  • Principles of Pharmacokinetics The processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion— collectively termed drug disposition—determine the concentration of drug delivered to target effector molecules. Absorption Bioavailability When a drug is administered orally, subcutaneously, intramuscularly, rectally, sublingually, or directly into desired sites of action, the amount of drug actually entering the systemic circulation may be less than with the intravenous route (Fig. 5-2A ).

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  • Pharmacokinetic Interactions Causing Decreased Drug Effects Gastrointestinal absorption can be reduced if a drug interaction results in drug binding in the gut, as with aluminum-containing antacids, kaolin-pectin suspensions, or bile acid sequestrants. Drugs such as histamine H 2 receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors that alter gastric pH may decrease the solubility and hence absorption of weak bases such as ketoconazole.

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  • Table 47-2 Causes of Hypocalcemia Low Parathyroid Hormone Levels (Hypoparathyroidism) Parathyroid agenesis Isolated DiGeorge syndrome Parathyroid destruction Surgical Radiation Infiltration by metastases or systemic diseases Autoimmune Reduced parathyroid function Hypomagnesemia Activating CaSR mutations High Parathyroid Hormone Levels (Secondary Hyperparathyroidism) Vitamin D deficiency or impaired 1,25(OH)2D production/action Nutritional vitamin D deficiency (poor intake or absorption) Renal insufficiency with impaired 1,25(OH)2D production Vitamin D resistance, inclu...

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  • Zinc Zinc is an integral component of many metalloenzymes in the body; it is involved in the synthesis and stabilization of proteins, DNA, and RNA and plays a structural role in ribosomes and membranes. Zinc is necessary for the binding of steroid hormone receptors and several other transcription factors to DNA. Zinc is absolutely required for normal spermatogenesis, fetal growth, and embryonic development.

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  • Diarrhea Enteral feeding often leads to diarrhea, especially if bowel function is compromised by disease or drugs, particularly broad-spectrum antibiotics. Diarrhea may be controlled by the use of a continuous drip, with a fiber-containing formula, or by adding an antidiarrheal agent to the formula. However, Clostridium difficile, which is a common cause of diarrhea in patients being tube fed, should be ruled out before using antidiarrheal agents. H2 blockers may also assist in reducing the net fluid presented to the colon.

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